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Title: Near-field non-radial motion generation from underground chemical explosions in jointed granite

Here, this paper describes analysis of non-radial ground motion generated by chemical explosions in a jointed rock formation during the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). Such motion makes it difficult to discriminate between various subsurface events such as explosions, implosions (i.e. mine collapse) and earthquakes. We apply 3-D numerical simulations to understand experimental data collected during the SPEs. The joints are modelled explicitly as compliant thin inclusions embedded into the rock mass. Mechanical properties of the rock and the joints as well as the joint spacing and orientation are inferred from experimental test data, and geophysical and geological characterization of the SPE site which is dominantly Climax Stock granitic outcrop. The role of various factors characterizing the joints such as joint spacing, frictional properties, orientation and persistence in generation of non-radial motion is addressed. The joints in granite at the SPE site are oriented in nearly orthogonal directions with two vertical sets dipping at 70–80 degrees with the same strike angle, one vertical set almost orthogonal to the first two and one shallow angle joint set dipping 15 degrees. In this study we establish the relationship between the joint orientation and azimuthal variations in the polarity of the observed shear motion.more » The majority of the shear motion is generated due to the effects of non-elastic sliding on the joints near the source, where the wave can create significant shear stress to overcome the cohesive forces at the joints. Near the surface the joints are less confined and are subject to sliding when the pressure waves are reflected. In the far field, where the cohesive forces on the joints cannot be overcome, additional shear motion can be generated due to elastic anisotropy of the rock mass given by preferred spatial orientations of compliant joints.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-722130
Journal ID: ISSN 0956-540X
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Journal International
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 212; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0956-540X
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; geomechanics; transient deformation; numerical modeling; wave propagation
OSTI Identifier:
1411676

Vorobiev, Oleg, Ezzedine, Souheil, and Hurley, Ryan. Near-field non-radial motion generation from underground chemical explosions in jointed granite. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1093/gji/ggx403.
Vorobiev, Oleg, Ezzedine, Souheil, & Hurley, Ryan. Near-field non-radial motion generation from underground chemical explosions in jointed granite. United States. doi:10.1093/gji/ggx403.
Vorobiev, Oleg, Ezzedine, Souheil, and Hurley, Ryan. 2017. "Near-field non-radial motion generation from underground chemical explosions in jointed granite". United States. doi:10.1093/gji/ggx403. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1411676.
@article{osti_1411676,
title = {Near-field non-radial motion generation from underground chemical explosions in jointed granite},
author = {Vorobiev, Oleg and Ezzedine, Souheil and Hurley, Ryan},
abstractNote = {Here, this paper describes analysis of non-radial ground motion generated by chemical explosions in a jointed rock formation during the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). Such motion makes it difficult to discriminate between various subsurface events such as explosions, implosions (i.e. mine collapse) and earthquakes. We apply 3-D numerical simulations to understand experimental data collected during the SPEs. The joints are modelled explicitly as compliant thin inclusions embedded into the rock mass. Mechanical properties of the rock and the joints as well as the joint spacing and orientation are inferred from experimental test data, and geophysical and geological characterization of the SPE site which is dominantly Climax Stock granitic outcrop. The role of various factors characterizing the joints such as joint spacing, frictional properties, orientation and persistence in generation of non-radial motion is addressed. The joints in granite at the SPE site are oriented in nearly orthogonal directions with two vertical sets dipping at 70–80 degrees with the same strike angle, one vertical set almost orthogonal to the first two and one shallow angle joint set dipping 15 degrees. In this study we establish the relationship between the joint orientation and azimuthal variations in the polarity of the observed shear motion. The majority of the shear motion is generated due to the effects of non-elastic sliding on the joints near the source, where the wave can create significant shear stress to overcome the cohesive forces at the joints. Near the surface the joints are less confined and are subject to sliding when the pressure waves are reflected. In the far field, where the cohesive forces on the joints cannot be overcome, additional shear motion can be generated due to elastic anisotropy of the rock mass given by preferred spatial orientations of compliant joints.},
doi = {10.1093/gji/ggx403},
journal = {Geophysical Journal International},
number = 1,
volume = 212,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}