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Title: Nanoporous Metals with Structural Hierarchy: A Review

Nanoporous (np) metals have generated much interest since they combine several desirable material characteristics, such as high surface area, mechanical size effects, and high conductivity. Most of the research has been focused on np Au due to its relatively straightforward synthesis, chemical stability, and many promising applications in the fields of catalysis and actuation. Other materials, such as np-Cu, Ag, and Pd have also been studied. Here, this review discusses recent advances in the field of np metals, focusing on new research areas that implement and leverage structural hierarchy while using np metals as their base structural constituents. First, we focus on single-element porous metals that are made of np metals at the fundamental level, but synthesized with additional levels of porosity. Second, we discuss the fabrication of composite structures, which use auxiliary materials to enhance the properties of np metals. Important applications of these hierarchical materials, especially in the fields of catalysis and electrochemistry, are also reviewed. Lastly, we conclude with a discussion about future opportunities for the advancement and application of np metals.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Mork Family Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Lab.
  3. Hamburg Univ. of Technology, Hamburg (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-733717
Journal ID: ISSN 1438-1656
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; FA9550‐14‐1‐0352; SC0012573
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Engineering Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1438-1656
Publisher:
Wiley
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Integrated Mesoscale Architectures for Sustainable Catalysis (IMASC)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY
OSTI Identifier:
1410018