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Title: Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834–087 using H.E.S.S. and FermiLAT observations

Abstract

Aims. Previous observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have revealed an extended very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray source, HESS J1834-087, coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) W41. The origin of the γ-ray emission was investigated in more detail with the H.E.S.S. array and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods. For this research, the γ-ray data provided by 61 h of observations with H.E.S.S., and four years with the Fermi LAT were analyzed, covering over five decades in energy from 1.8 GeV up to 30 TeV. The morphology and spectrum of the TeV and GeV sources were studied and multiwavelength data were used to investigate the origin of the γ-ray emission toward W41. Results. The TeV source can be modeled with a sum of two components: one point-like and one significantly extended (σTeV = 0.17° ± 0.01°), both centered on SNR W41 and exhibiting spectra described by a power law with index ΓTeV ≃ 2.6. The GeV source detected with Fermi LAT is extended (σGeV = 0.15° ± 0.03°) and morphologically matches the VHE emission. Its spectrum can be described by a power-law model with an index ΓGeV = 2.15 ± 0.12more » and smoothly joins the spectrum of the whole TeV source. A break appears in the γ-ray spectra around 100 GeV. No pulsations were found in the GeV range. Conclusions. Two main scenarios are proposed to explain the observed emission: a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or the interaction of SNR W41 with an associated molecular cloud. X-ray observations suggest the presence of a point-like source (a pulsar candidate) near the center of the remnant and nonthermal X-ray diffuse emission that could arise from the possibly associated PWN. The PWN scenario is supported by the compatible positions of the TeV and GeV sources with the putative pulsar. However, the spectral energy distribution from radio to γ-rays is reproduced by a one-zone leptonic model only if an excess of low-energy electrons is injected following a Maxwellian distribution by a pulsar with a high spin-down power (>1037 erg s-1). This additional low-energy component is not needed if we consider that the point-like TeV source is unrelated to the extended GeV and TeV sources. Finally, the interacting SNR scenario is supported by the spatial coincidence between the γ-ray sources, the detection of OH (1720 MHz) maser lines, and the hadronic modeling.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Fermi-LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1355168
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 574; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; acceleration of particles / ISM; supernova remnants / ISM; clouds / cosmic rays

Citation Formats

Abramowski, A., Aharonian, F., Ait Benkhali, F., Akhperjanian, A. G., Angüner, E., Anton, G., Backes, M., Balenderan, S., Balzer, A., Barnacka, A., Becherini, Y., Becker Tjus, J., Bernlöhr, K., Birsin, E., Bissaldi, E., Biteau, J., Böttcher, M., Boisson, C., Bolmont, J., Bordas, P., Brucker, J., Brun, F., Brun, P., Bulik, T., Carrigan, S., Casanova, S., Chadwick, P. M., Chalme-Calvet, R., Chaves, R. C. G., Cheesebrough, A., Chrétien, M., Colafrancesco, S., Cologna, G., Conrad, J., Couturier, C., Cui, Y., Dalton, M., Daniel, M. K., Davids, I. D., Degrange, B., Deil, C., deWilt, P., Dickinson, H. J., Djannati-Ataï, A., Domainko, W., Drury, L. O’C., Dubus, G., Dutson, K., Dyks, J., Dyrda, M., Edwards, T., Egberts, K., Eger, P., Espigat, P., Farnier, C., Fegan, S., Feinstein, F., Fernandes, M. V., Fernandez, D., Fiasson, A., Fontaine, G., Förster, A., Füßling, M., Gajdus, M., Gallant, Y. A., Garrigoux, T., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Glicenstein, J. F., Grondin, M. -H., Grudzińska, M., Häffner, S., Hahn, J., Harris, J., Heinzelmann, G., Henri, G., Hermann, G., Hervet, O., Hillert, A., Hinton, J. A., Hofmann, W., Hofverberg, P., Holler, M., Horns, D., Jacholkowska, A., Jahn, C., Jamrozy, M., Janiak, M., Jankowsky, F., Jung, I., Kastendieck, M. A., Katarzyński, K., Katz, U., Kaufmann, S., Khélifi, B., Kieffer, M., Klepser, S., Klochkov, D., Kluźniak, W., Kneiske, T., Kolitzus, D., Komin, Nu., Kosack, K., Krakau, S., Krayzel, F., Krüger, P. P., Laffon, H., Lamanna, G., Lefaucheur, J., Lemière, A., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lenain, J. -P., Lohse, T., Lopatin, A., Lu, C. -C., Marandon, V., Marcowith, A., Marx, R., Maurin, G., Maxted, N., Mayer, M., McComb, T. J. L., Méhault, J., Meintjes, P. J., Menzler, U., Meyer, M., Moderski, R., Mohamed, M., Moulin, E., Murach, T., Naumann, C. L., de Naurois, M., Niemiec, J., Nolan, S. J., Oakes, L., Odaka, H., Ohm, S., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Opitz, B., Ostrowski, M., Oya, I., Panter, M., Parsons, R. D., Paz Arribas, M., Pekeur, N. W., Pelletier, G., Perez, J., Petrucci, P. -O., Peyaud, B., Pita, S., Poon, H., Pühlhofer, G., Punch, M., Quirrenbach, A., Raab, S., Raue, M., Reichardt, I., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Renaud, M., de los Reyes, R., Rieger, F., Rob, L., Romoli, C., Rosier-Lees, S., Rowell, G., Rudak, B., Rulten, C. B., Sahakian, V., Sanchez, D. A., Santangelo, A., Schlickeiser, R., Schüssler, F., Schulz, A., Schwanke, U., Schwarzburg, S., Schwemmer, S., Sol, H., Spengler, G., Spies, F., Stawarz, Ł., Steenkamp, R., Stegmann, C., Stinzing, F., Stycz, K., Sushch, I., Tavernet, J. -P., Tavernier, T., Taylor, A. M., Terrier, R., Tluczykont, M., Trichard, C., Valerius, K., van Eldik, C., van Soelen, B., Vasileiadis, G., Venter, C., Viana, A., Vincent, P., Völk, H. J., Volpe, F., Vorster, M., Vuillaume, T., Wagner, S. J., Wagner, P., Wagner, R. M., Ward, M., Weidinger, M., Weitzel, Q., White, R., Wierzcholska, A., Willmann, P., Wörnlein, A., Wouters, D., Yang, R., Zabalza, V., Zacharias, M., Zdziarski, A. A., Zech, A., Zechlin, H. -S., Acero, F., Casandjian, J. M., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Giordano, F., Guillemot, L., Lande, J., Pletsch, H., and Uchiyama, Y.. Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834–087 using H.E.S.S. and FermiLAT observations. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201322694.
Abramowski, A., Aharonian, F., Ait Benkhali, F., Akhperjanian, A. G., Angüner, E., Anton, G., Backes, M., Balenderan, S., Balzer, A., Barnacka, A., Becherini, Y., Becker Tjus, J., Bernlöhr, K., Birsin, E., Bissaldi, E., Biteau, J., Böttcher, M., Boisson, C., Bolmont, J., Bordas, P., Brucker, J., Brun, F., Brun, P., Bulik, T., Carrigan, S., Casanova, S., Chadwick, P. M., Chalme-Calvet, R., Chaves, R. C. G., Cheesebrough, A., Chrétien, M., Colafrancesco, S., Cologna, G., Conrad, J., Couturier, C., Cui, Y., Dalton, M., Daniel, M. K., Davids, I. D., Degrange, B., Deil, C., deWilt, P., Dickinson, H. J., Djannati-Ataï, A., Domainko, W., Drury, L. O’C., Dubus, G., Dutson, K., Dyks, J., Dyrda, M., Edwards, T., Egberts, K., Eger, P., Espigat, P., Farnier, C., Fegan, S., Feinstein, F., Fernandes, M. V., Fernandez, D., Fiasson, A., Fontaine, G., Förster, A., Füßling, M., Gajdus, M., Gallant, Y. A., Garrigoux, T., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Glicenstein, J. F., Grondin, M. -H., Grudzińska, M., Häffner, S., Hahn, J., Harris, J., Heinzelmann, G., Henri, G., Hermann, G., Hervet, O., Hillert, A., Hinton, J. A., Hofmann, W., Hofverberg, P., Holler, M., Horns, D., Jacholkowska, A., Jahn, C., Jamrozy, M., Janiak, M., Jankowsky, F., Jung, I., Kastendieck, M. A., Katarzyński, K., Katz, U., Kaufmann, S., Khélifi, B., Kieffer, M., Klepser, S., Klochkov, D., Kluźniak, W., Kneiske, T., Kolitzus, D., Komin, Nu., Kosack, K., Krakau, S., Krayzel, F., Krüger, P. P., Laffon, H., Lamanna, G., Lefaucheur, J., Lemière, A., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lenain, J. -P., Lohse, T., Lopatin, A., Lu, C. -C., Marandon, V., Marcowith, A., Marx, R., Maurin, G., Maxted, N., Mayer, M., McComb, T. J. L., Méhault, J., Meintjes, P. J., Menzler, U., Meyer, M., Moderski, R., Mohamed, M., Moulin, E., Murach, T., Naumann, C. L., de Naurois, M., Niemiec, J., Nolan, S. J., Oakes, L., Odaka, H., Ohm, S., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Opitz, B., Ostrowski, M., Oya, I., Panter, M., Parsons, R. D., Paz Arribas, M., Pekeur, N. W., Pelletier, G., Perez, J., Petrucci, P. -O., Peyaud, B., Pita, S., Poon, H., Pühlhofer, G., Punch, M., Quirrenbach, A., Raab, S., Raue, M., Reichardt, I., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Renaud, M., de los Reyes, R., Rieger, F., Rob, L., Romoli, C., Rosier-Lees, S., Rowell, G., Rudak, B., Rulten, C. B., Sahakian, V., Sanchez, D. A., Santangelo, A., Schlickeiser, R., Schüssler, F., Schulz, A., Schwanke, U., Schwarzburg, S., Schwemmer, S., Sol, H., Spengler, G., Spies, F., Stawarz, Ł., Steenkamp, R., Stegmann, C., Stinzing, F., Stycz, K., Sushch, I., Tavernet, J. -P., Tavernier, T., Taylor, A. M., Terrier, R., Tluczykont, M., Trichard, C., Valerius, K., van Eldik, C., van Soelen, B., Vasileiadis, G., Venter, C., Viana, A., Vincent, P., Völk, H. J., Volpe, F., Vorster, M., Vuillaume, T., Wagner, S. J., Wagner, P., Wagner, R. M., Ward, M., Weidinger, M., Weitzel, Q., White, R., Wierzcholska, A., Willmann, P., Wörnlein, A., Wouters, D., Yang, R., Zabalza, V., Zacharias, M., Zdziarski, A. A., Zech, A., Zechlin, H. -S., Acero, F., Casandjian, J. M., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Giordano, F., Guillemot, L., Lande, J., Pletsch, H., & Uchiyama, Y.. Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834–087 using H.E.S.S. and FermiLAT observations. United States. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201322694
Abramowski, A., Aharonian, F., Ait Benkhali, F., Akhperjanian, A. G., Angüner, E., Anton, G., Backes, M., Balenderan, S., Balzer, A., Barnacka, A., Becherini, Y., Becker Tjus, J., Bernlöhr, K., Birsin, E., Bissaldi, E., Biteau, J., Böttcher, M., Boisson, C., Bolmont, J., Bordas, P., Brucker, J., Brun, F., Brun, P., Bulik, T., Carrigan, S., Casanova, S., Chadwick, P. M., Chalme-Calvet, R., Chaves, R. C. G., Cheesebrough, A., Chrétien, M., Colafrancesco, S., Cologna, G., Conrad, J., Couturier, C., Cui, Y., Dalton, M., Daniel, M. K., Davids, I. D., Degrange, B., Deil, C., deWilt, P., Dickinson, H. J., Djannati-Ataï, A., Domainko, W., Drury, L. O’C., Dubus, G., Dutson, K., Dyks, J., Dyrda, M., Edwards, T., Egberts, K., Eger, P., Espigat, P., Farnier, C., Fegan, S., Feinstein, F., Fernandes, M. V., Fernandez, D., Fiasson, A., Fontaine, G., Förster, A., Füßling, M., Gajdus, M., Gallant, Y. A., Garrigoux, T., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Glicenstein, J. F., Grondin, M. -H., Grudzińska, M., Häffner, S., Hahn, J., Harris, J., Heinzelmann, G., Henri, G., Hermann, G., Hervet, O., Hillert, A., Hinton, J. A., Hofmann, W., Hofverberg, P., Holler, M., Horns, D., Jacholkowska, A., Jahn, C., Jamrozy, M., Janiak, M., Jankowsky, F., Jung, I., Kastendieck, M. A., Katarzyński, K., Katz, U., Kaufmann, S., Khélifi, B., Kieffer, M., Klepser, S., Klochkov, D., Kluźniak, W., Kneiske, T., Kolitzus, D., Komin, Nu., Kosack, K., Krakau, S., Krayzel, F., Krüger, P. P., Laffon, H., Lamanna, G., Lefaucheur, J., Lemière, A., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lenain, J. -P., Lohse, T., Lopatin, A., Lu, C. -C., Marandon, V., Marcowith, A., Marx, R., Maurin, G., Maxted, N., Mayer, M., McComb, T. J. L., Méhault, J., Meintjes, P. J., Menzler, U., Meyer, M., Moderski, R., Mohamed, M., Moulin, E., Murach, T., Naumann, C. L., de Naurois, M., Niemiec, J., Nolan, S. J., Oakes, L., Odaka, H., Ohm, S., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Opitz, B., Ostrowski, M., Oya, I., Panter, M., Parsons, R. D., Paz Arribas, M., Pekeur, N. W., Pelletier, G., Perez, J., Petrucci, P. -O., Peyaud, B., Pita, S., Poon, H., Pühlhofer, G., Punch, M., Quirrenbach, A., Raab, S., Raue, M., Reichardt, I., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Renaud, M., de los Reyes, R., Rieger, F., Rob, L., Romoli, C., Rosier-Lees, S., Rowell, G., Rudak, B., Rulten, C. B., Sahakian, V., Sanchez, D. A., Santangelo, A., Schlickeiser, R., Schüssler, F., Schulz, A., Schwanke, U., Schwarzburg, S., Schwemmer, S., Sol, H., Spengler, G., Spies, F., Stawarz, Ł., Steenkamp, R., Stegmann, C., Stinzing, F., Stycz, K., Sushch, I., Tavernet, J. -P., Tavernier, T., Taylor, A. M., Terrier, R., Tluczykont, M., Trichard, C., Valerius, K., van Eldik, C., van Soelen, B., Vasileiadis, G., Venter, C., Viana, A., Vincent, P., Völk, H. J., Volpe, F., Vorster, M., Vuillaume, T., Wagner, S. J., Wagner, P., Wagner, R. M., Ward, M., Weidinger, M., Weitzel, Q., White, R., Wierzcholska, A., Willmann, P., Wörnlein, A., Wouters, D., Yang, R., Zabalza, V., Zacharias, M., Zdziarski, A. A., Zech, A., Zechlin, H. -S., Acero, F., Casandjian, J. M., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Giordano, F., Guillemot, L., Lande, J., Pletsch, H., and Uchiyama, Y.. Tue . "Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834–087 using H.E.S.S. and FermiLAT observations". United States. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201322694. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355168.
@article{osti_1355168,
title = {Probing the gamma-ray emission from HESS J1834–087 using H.E.S.S. and FermiLAT observations},
author = {Abramowski, A. and Aharonian, F. and Ait Benkhali, F. and Akhperjanian, A. G. and Angüner, E. and Anton, G. and Backes, M. and Balenderan, S. and Balzer, A. and Barnacka, A. and Becherini, Y. and Becker Tjus, J. and Bernlöhr, K. and Birsin, E. and Bissaldi, E. and Biteau, J. and Böttcher, M. and Boisson, C. and Bolmont, J. and Bordas, P. and Brucker, J. and Brun, F. and Brun, P. and Bulik, T. and Carrigan, S. and Casanova, S. and Chadwick, P. M. and Chalme-Calvet, R. and Chaves, R. C. G. and Cheesebrough, A. and Chrétien, M. and Colafrancesco, S. and Cologna, G. and Conrad, J. and Couturier, C. and Cui, Y. and Dalton, M. and Daniel, M. K. and Davids, I. D. and Degrange, B. and Deil, C. and deWilt, P. and Dickinson, H. J. and Djannati-Ataï, A. and Domainko, W. and Drury, L. O’C. and Dubus, G. and Dutson, K. and Dyks, J. and Dyrda, M. and Edwards, T. and Egberts, K. and Eger, P. and Espigat, P. and Farnier, C. and Fegan, S. and Feinstein, F. and Fernandes, M. V. and Fernandez, D. and Fiasson, A. and Fontaine, G. and Förster, A. and Füßling, M. and Gajdus, M. and Gallant, Y. A. and Garrigoux, T. and Giavitto, G. and Giebels, B. and Glicenstein, J. F. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grudzińska, M. and Häffner, S. and Hahn, J. and Harris, J. and Heinzelmann, G. and Henri, G. and Hermann, G. and Hervet, O. and Hillert, A. and Hinton, J. A. and Hofmann, W. and Hofverberg, P. and Holler, M. and Horns, D. and Jacholkowska, A. and Jahn, C. and Jamrozy, M. and Janiak, M. and Jankowsky, F. and Jung, I. and Kastendieck, M. A. and Katarzyński, K. and Katz, U. and Kaufmann, S. and Khélifi, B. and Kieffer, M. and Klepser, S. and Klochkov, D. and Kluźniak, W. and Kneiske, T. and Kolitzus, D. and Komin, Nu. and Kosack, K. and Krakau, S. and Krayzel, F. and Krüger, P. P. and Laffon, H. and Lamanna, G. and Lefaucheur, J. and Lemière, A. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Lenain, J. -P. and Lohse, T. and Lopatin, A. and Lu, C. -C. and Marandon, V. and Marcowith, A. and Marx, R. and Maurin, G. and Maxted, N. and Mayer, M. and McComb, T. J. L. and Méhault, J. and Meintjes, P. J. and Menzler, U. and Meyer, M. and Moderski, R. and Mohamed, M. and Moulin, E. and Murach, T. and Naumann, C. L. and de Naurois, M. and Niemiec, J. and Nolan, S. J. and Oakes, L. and Odaka, H. and Ohm, S. and de Oña Wilhelmi, E. and Opitz, B. and Ostrowski, M. and Oya, I. and Panter, M. and Parsons, R. D. and Paz Arribas, M. and Pekeur, N. W. and Pelletier, G. and Perez, J. and Petrucci, P. -O. and Peyaud, B. and Pita, S. and Poon, H. and Pühlhofer, G. and Punch, M. and Quirrenbach, A. and Raab, S. and Raue, M. and Reichardt, I. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Renaud, M. and de los Reyes, R. and Rieger, F. and Rob, L. and Romoli, C. and Rosier-Lees, S. and Rowell, G. and Rudak, B. and Rulten, C. B. and Sahakian, V. and Sanchez, D. A. and Santangelo, A. and Schlickeiser, R. and Schüssler, F. and Schulz, A. and Schwanke, U. and Schwarzburg, S. and Schwemmer, S. and Sol, H. and Spengler, G. and Spies, F. and Stawarz, Ł. and Steenkamp, R. and Stegmann, C. and Stinzing, F. and Stycz, K. and Sushch, I. and Tavernet, J. -P. and Tavernier, T. and Taylor, A. M. and Terrier, R. and Tluczykont, M. and Trichard, C. and Valerius, K. and van Eldik, C. and van Soelen, B. and Vasileiadis, G. and Venter, C. and Viana, A. and Vincent, P. and Völk, H. J. and Volpe, F. and Vorster, M. and Vuillaume, T. and Wagner, S. J. and Wagner, P. and Wagner, R. M. and Ward, M. and Weidinger, M. and Weitzel, Q. and White, R. and Wierzcholska, A. and Willmann, P. and Wörnlein, A. and Wouters, D. and Yang, R. and Zabalza, V. and Zacharias, M. and Zdziarski, A. A. and Zech, A. and Zechlin, H. -S. and Acero, F. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Giordano, F. and Guillemot, L. and Lande, J. and Pletsch, H. and Uchiyama, Y.},
abstractNote = {Aims. Previous observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) have revealed an extended very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray source, HESS J1834-087, coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) W41. The origin of the γ-ray emission was investigated in more detail with the H.E.S.S. array and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Methods. For this research, the γ-ray data provided by 61 h of observations with H.E.S.S., and four years with the Fermi LAT were analyzed, covering over five decades in energy from 1.8 GeV up to 30 TeV. The morphology and spectrum of the TeV and GeV sources were studied and multiwavelength data were used to investigate the origin of the γ-ray emission toward W41. Results. The TeV source can be modeled with a sum of two components: one point-like and one significantly extended (σTeV = 0.17° ± 0.01°), both centered on SNR W41 and exhibiting spectra described by a power law with index ΓTeV ≃ 2.6. The GeV source detected with Fermi LAT is extended (σGeV = 0.15° ± 0.03°) and morphologically matches the VHE emission. Its spectrum can be described by a power-law model with an index ΓGeV = 2.15 ± 0.12 and smoothly joins the spectrum of the whole TeV source. A break appears in the γ-ray spectra around 100 GeV. No pulsations were found in the GeV range. Conclusions. Two main scenarios are proposed to explain the observed emission: a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or the interaction of SNR W41 with an associated molecular cloud. X-ray observations suggest the presence of a point-like source (a pulsar candidate) near the center of the remnant and nonthermal X-ray diffuse emission that could arise from the possibly associated PWN. The PWN scenario is supported by the compatible positions of the TeV and GeV sources with the putative pulsar. However, the spectral energy distribution from radio to γ-rays is reproduced by a one-zone leptonic model only if an excess of low-energy electrons is injected following a Maxwellian distribution by a pulsar with a high spin-down power (>1037 erg s-1). This additional low-energy component is not needed if we consider that the point-like TeV source is unrelated to the extended GeV and TeV sources. Finally, the interacting SNR scenario is supported by the spatial coincidence between the γ-ray sources, the detection of OH (1720 MHz) maser lines, and the hadronic modeling.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201322694},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 574,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {1}
}

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DETECTION OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA HESS J1825–137 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
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    Extended Gamma-Ray Emission from the G25.0+0.0 Region: A Star-forming Region Powered by the Newly Found OB Association?
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    X-Ray Monitoring of the Magnetar CXOU J171405.7–381031 in Supernova Remnant CTB 37B
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    The Interaction between the Supernova Remnant W41 and the Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud G23.33-0.30
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    Fermi Large Area Telescope Fourth Source Catalog
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