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Title: Planck intermediate results: XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck $$\star$$

The nearby Chamaeleon clouds have been observed in γ rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and in thermal dust emission by Planck and IRAS. Cosmic rays and large dust grains, if smoothly mixed with gas, can jointly serve with the H i and 12CO radio data to (i) map the hydrogen column densities, N H, in the different gas phases, in particular at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the H i-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, X CO; and (iii) probe the dust properties per gas nucleon in each phase and map their spatial variations across the clouds. We have separated clouds at local, intermediate, and Galactic velocities in H i and 12CO line emission to model in parallel the γ-ray intensity recorded between 0.4 and 100 GeV; the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, τ 353; the thermal radiance of the large grains; and an estimate of the dust extinction, A VQ, empirically corrected for the starlight intensity. Furthermore, the dust and γ-ray models have been coupled to account for the DNM gas. The consistent γ-ray emissivity spectra recorded in the different phases confirm that the GeV–TeV cosmic rays probedmore » by the LAT uniformly permeate all gas phases up to the 12CO cores. The dust and cosmic rays both reveal large amounts of DNM gas, with comparable spatial distributions and twice as much mass as in the CO-bright clouds. We give constraints on the H i-DNM-CO transitions for five separate clouds. CO-dark H 2 dominates the molecular columns up to AV ≃ 0.9 and its mass often exceeds the one-third of the molecular mass expected by theory. The corrected A VQ extinction largely provides the best fit to the total gas traced by the γ rays. Nevertheless, we find evidence for a marked rise in A VQ/N H with increasing N H and molecular fraction, and with decreasing dust temperature. The rise in τ 353/NH is even steeper. Here, we observe variations of lesser amplitude and orderliness for the specific power of the grains, except for a coherent decline by half in the CO cores. This combined information suggests grain evolution. We also provide average values for the dust properties per gas nucleon in the different phases. The γ rays and dust radiance yield consistent X CO estimates near 0.7 × 10 20 cm -2 K -1 km -1 s. The A VQ and τ 353 tracers yield biased values because of the large rise in grain opacity in the CO clouds. These results clarify a recurrent disparity in the γ-ray versus dust calibration of X CO, but they confirm the factor of 2 difference found between the X CO estimates in nearby clouds and in the neighbouring spiral arms.« less
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 582; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Planck and Fermi Collaborations
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Gamma rays; ISM; local insterstellar matter; cosmic rays; dust; extinction; structure
OSTI Identifier:
1354894