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Title: Planck intermediate results: XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck $$\star$$

The nearby Chamaeleon clouds have been observed in γ rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and in thermal dust emission by Planck and IRAS. Cosmic rays and large dust grains, if smoothly mixed with gas, can jointly serve with the H i and 12CO radio data to (i) map the hydrogen column densities, N H, in the different gas phases, in particular at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the H i-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, X CO; and (iii) probe the dust properties per gas nucleon in each phase and map their spatial variations across the clouds. We have separated clouds at local, intermediate, and Galactic velocities in H i and 12CO line emission to model in parallel the γ-ray intensity recorded between 0.4 and 100 GeV; the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, τ 353; the thermal radiance of the large grains; and an estimate of the dust extinction, A VQ, empirically corrected for the starlight intensity. Furthermore, the dust and γ-ray models have been coupled to account for the DNM gas. The consistent γ-ray emissivity spectra recorded in the different phases confirm that the GeV–TeV cosmic rays probedmore » by the LAT uniformly permeate all gas phases up to the 12CO cores. The dust and cosmic rays both reveal large amounts of DNM gas, with comparable spatial distributions and twice as much mass as in the CO-bright clouds. We give constraints on the H i-DNM-CO transitions for five separate clouds. CO-dark H 2 dominates the molecular columns up to AV ≃ 0.9 and its mass often exceeds the one-third of the molecular mass expected by theory. The corrected A VQ extinction largely provides the best fit to the total gas traced by the γ rays. Nevertheless, we find evidence for a marked rise in A VQ/N H with increasing N H and molecular fraction, and with decreasing dust temperature. The rise in τ 353/NH is even steeper. Here, we observe variations of lesser amplitude and orderliness for the specific power of the grains, except for a coherent decline by half in the CO cores. This combined information suggests grain evolution. We also provide average values for the dust properties per gas nucleon in the different phases. The γ rays and dust radiance yield consistent X CO estimates near 0.7 × 10 20 cm -2 K -1 km -1 s. The A VQ and τ 353 tracers yield biased values because of the large rise in grain opacity in the CO clouds. These results clarify a recurrent disparity in the γ-ray versus dust calibration of X CO, but they confirm the factor of 2 difference found between the X CO estimates in nearby clouds and in the neighbouring spiral arms.« less
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 582; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Planck and Fermi Collaborations
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Gamma rays; ISM; local insterstellar matter; cosmic rays; dust; extinction; structure
OSTI Identifier:
1354894

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Aniano, G., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Casandjian, J. M., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Digel, S. W., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Fukui, Y., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Grenier, I. A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Natoli, P., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Roudier, G., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Strong, A. W., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Tibaldo, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck $\star$. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424955.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Aniano, G., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Casandjian, J. M., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Digel, S. W., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Fukui, Y., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Grenier, I. A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Natoli, P., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Roudier, G., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Strong, A. W., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Tibaldo, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck $\star$. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424955.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Aniano, G., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Casandjian, J. M., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Digel, S. W., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Fukui, Y., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Grenier, I. A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Natoli, P., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Roudier, G., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Strong, A. W., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Tibaldo, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. 2015. "Planck intermediate results: XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck $\star$". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424955. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1354894.
@article{osti_1354894,
title = {Planck intermediate results: XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck $\star$},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Aniano, G. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Casandjian, J. M. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Combet, C. and Couchot, F. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Désert, F. -X. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Digel, S. W. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Falgarone, E. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Fukui, Y. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gregorio, A. and Grenier, I. A. and Gruppuso, A. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. L. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Jones, W. C. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Maris, M. and Marshall, D. J. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Natoli, P. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C. A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Pasian, F. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G. W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reach, W. T. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Roudier, G. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Scott, D. and Spencer, L. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Strong, A. W. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Tibaldo, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Wehus, I. K. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {The nearby Chamaeleon clouds have been observed in γ rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and in thermal dust emission by Planck and IRAS. Cosmic rays and large dust grains, if smoothly mixed with gas, can jointly serve with the H i and 12CO radio data to (i) map the hydrogen column densities, NH, in the different gas phases, in particular at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the H i-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO; and (iii) probe the dust properties per gas nucleon in each phase and map their spatial variations across the clouds. We have separated clouds at local, intermediate, and Galactic velocities in H i and 12CO line emission to model in parallel the γ-ray intensity recorded between 0.4 and 100 GeV; the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, τ353; the thermal radiance of the large grains; and an estimate of the dust extinction, AVQ, empirically corrected for the starlight intensity. Furthermore, the dust and γ-ray models have been coupled to account for the DNM gas. The consistent γ-ray emissivity spectra recorded in the different phases confirm that the GeV–TeV cosmic rays probed by the LAT uniformly permeate all gas phases up to the 12CO cores. The dust and cosmic rays both reveal large amounts of DNM gas, with comparable spatial distributions and twice as much mass as in the CO-bright clouds. We give constraints on the Hi-DNM-CO transitions for five separate clouds. CO-dark H2 dominates the molecular columns up to AV ≃ 0.9 and its mass often exceeds the one-third of the molecular mass expected by theory. The corrected AVQ extinction largely provides the best fit to the total gas traced by the γ rays. Nevertheless, we find evidence for a marked rise in AVQ/NH with increasing NH and molecular fraction, and with decreasing dust temperature. The rise in τ353/NH is even steeper. Here, we observe variations of lesser amplitude and orderliness for the specific power of the grains, except for a coherent decline by half in the CO cores. This combined information suggests grain evolution. We also provide average values for the dust properties per gas nucleon in the different phases. The γ rays and dust radiance yield consistent XCO estimates near 0.7 × 1020 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s. The AVQ and τ353 tracers yield biased values because of the large rise in grain opacity in the CO clouds. These results clarify a recurrent disparity in the γ-ray versus dust calibration of XCO, but they confirm the factor of 2 difference found between the XCO estimates in nearby clouds and in the neighbouring spiral arms.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201424955},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 582,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {9}
}