skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model

Abstract

Here, we present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt “slot region” and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the 1 March storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally resolved whistler-mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L shells (2–6) including (a) the strong energy dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L shells at lower energies and (c) an “S-shaped” energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial transport and losses. We find that the characteristic energy-dependent structure of the radiation belts and slot region is dynamic and can be formed gradually in ~15 days, although the “S shape” can also be reproduced by assuming equilibrium conditions. The highest-energy electrons (E > 300 keV) of the inner region of the outer belt (L ~ 4–5) also constantly decay, demonstrating that hiss wave scattering affects the outer belt during times of extended plasmasphere. Through these simulations, we explain the full structuremore » in energy and L shell of the belts and the slot formation by hiss scattering during storm recovery. We show the power and complexity of looking dynamically at the effects over all energies and L shells and the need for using data-driven and event-specific conditions.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]
  1. CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  3. New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. Institute of Atmospheric Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)
  5. Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
  6. Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)
  7. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  8. The Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1340971
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-23141
Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; heliospheric and magnetospheric physics; radiation belts; wave particle interactions; electron losses; electron lifetimes; whistler waves

Citation Formats

Ripoll, J. -F., Reeves, Geoffrey D., Cunningham, Gregory Scott, Loridan, V., Denton, M., Santolik, O., Kurth, W. S., Kletzing, C. A., Turner, D. L., Henderson, M. G., and Ukhorskiy, A. Y. Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068869.
Ripoll, J. -F., Reeves, Geoffrey D., Cunningham, Gregory Scott, Loridan, V., Denton, M., Santolik, O., Kurth, W. S., Kletzing, C. A., Turner, D. L., Henderson, M. G., & Ukhorskiy, A. Y. Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068869
Ripoll, J. -F., Reeves, Geoffrey D., Cunningham, Gregory Scott, Loridan, V., Denton, M., Santolik, O., Kurth, W. S., Kletzing, C. A., Turner, D. L., Henderson, M. G., and Ukhorskiy, A. Y. Sat . "Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL068869. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1340971.
@article{osti_1340971,
title = {Reproducing the observed energy-dependent structure of Earth's electron radiation belts during storm recovery with an event-specific diffusion model},
author = {Ripoll, J. -F. and Reeves, Geoffrey D. and Cunningham, Gregory Scott and Loridan, V. and Denton, M. and Santolik, O. and Kurth, W. S. and Kletzing, C. A. and Turner, D. L. and Henderson, M. G. and Ukhorskiy, A. Y.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present dynamic simulations of energy-dependent losses in the radiation belt “slot region” and the formation of the two-belt structure for the quiet days after the 1 March storm. The simulations combine radial diffusion with a realistic scattering model, based data-driven spatially and temporally resolved whistler-mode hiss wave observations from the Van Allen Probes satellites. The simulations reproduce Van Allen Probes observations for all energies and L shells (2–6) including (a) the strong energy dependence to the radiation belt dynamics (b) an energy-dependent outer boundary to the inner zone that extends to higher L shells at lower energies and (c) an “S-shaped” energy-dependent inner boundary to the outer zone that results from the competition between diffusive radial transport and losses. We find that the characteristic energy-dependent structure of the radiation belts and slot region is dynamic and can be formed gradually in ~15 days, although the “S shape” can also be reproduced by assuming equilibrium conditions. The highest-energy electrons (E > 300 keV) of the inner region of the outer belt (L ~ 4–5) also constantly decay, demonstrating that hiss wave scattering affects the outer belt during times of extended plasmasphere. Through these simulations, we explain the full structure in energy and L shell of the belts and the slot formation by hiss scattering during storm recovery. We show the power and complexity of looking dynamically at the effects over all energies and L shells and the need for using data-driven and event-specific conditions.},
doi = {10.1002/2016GL068869},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 11,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 10 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Analysis of quasi-linear diffusion coefficients
journal, February 1999

  • Albert, J. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 104, Issue A2
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998JA900113

Estimates of lifetimes against pitch angle diffusion
journal, November 2009

  • Albert, J. M.; Shprits, Y. Y.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 71, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.004

Magnetic field power spectra and magnetic radial diffusion coefficients using CRRES magnetometer data
journal, February 2015

  • Ali, Ashar F.; Elkington, Scot R.; Tu, Weichao
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020419

An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts
journal, November 2014

  • Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Hoxie, V. C.
  • Nature, Vol. 515, Issue 7528
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13956

Low altitude energetic electron lifetimes after enhanced magnetic activity as deduced from SAC-C and DEMETER data
journal, January 2010


Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm
journal, January 2000

  • Brautigam, D. H.; Albert, J. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 105, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JA900344

Global time-dependent chorus maps from low-Earth-orbit electron precipitation and Van Allen Probes data: Chen et al.: Derive Global Time-dependent Chorus Maps
journal, February 2014

  • Chen, Yue; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059181

Dynamic modeling of radiation belt electrons by radial diffusion simulation for a 2 month interval following the 24 March 1991 storm injection: BRIEF REPORT
journal, March 2010

  • Chu, Feifei; Hudson, Mary K.; Haines, Paul
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014409

Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere
journal, January 2016

  • Claudepierre, S. G.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wiltberger, M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA022048

Energetic, relativistic, and ultrarelativistic electrons: Comparison of long-term VERB code simulations with Van Allen Probes measurements: LONG-TERM VERB CODE SIMULATIONS
journal, May 2015

  • Drozdov, A. Y.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Orlova, K. G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020637

Van Allen Probes show that the inner radiation zone contains no MeV electrons: ECT/MagEIS data
journal, March 2015

  • Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062874

Modeling CME-shock-driven storms in 2012-2013: MHD test particle simulations: Modeling CME-shock driven storms
journal, February 2015

  • Hudson, M. K.; Paral, J.; Kress, B. T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020833

Understanding the dynamic evolution of the relativistic electron slot region including radial and pitch angle diffusion: BRIEF REPORT
journal, October 2011

  • Kim, Kyung-Chan; Shprits, Yuri; Subbotin, Dmitriy
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016684

The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP
journal, June 2013


Electron densities inferred from plasma wave spectra obtained by the Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes: Van Allen Probes Electron Densities
journal, February 2015

  • Kurth, W. S.; De Pascuale, S.; Faden, J. B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020857

Quantifying hiss-driven energetic electron precipitation: A detailed conjunction event analysis
journal, February 2014

  • Li, W.; Ni, B.; Thorne, R. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013GL059132

Upper limit on the inner radiation belt MeV electron intensity
journal, February 2015

  • Li, X.; Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020777

Modeling gradual diffusion changes in radiation belt electron phase space density for the March 2013 Van Allen Probes case study
journal, October 2014

  • Li, Zhao; Hudson, Mary; Jaynes, Allison
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020359

Equilibrium structure of radiation belt electrons
journal, May 1973

  • Lyons, Lawrence R.; Thorne, Richard Mansergh
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 78, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA078i013p02142

Pitch-angle diffusion of radiation belt electrons within the plasmasphere
journal, July 1972

  • Lyons, Lawrence R.; Thorne, Richard Mansergh; Kennel, Charles F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 77, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA077i019p03455

Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission
journal, September 2012


Energetic outer zone electron loss timescales during low geomagnetic activity
journal, January 2006

  • Meredith, Nigel P.; Horne, Richard B.; Glauert, Sarah A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011516

An empirically observed pitch-angle diffusion eigenmode in the Earth's electron belt near L *  = 5.0
journal, January 2014

  • O'Brien, T. P.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058713

Model of lifetimes of the outer radiation belt electrons in a realistic magnetic field using realistic chorus wave parameters: electron lifetimes in non-dipole field
journal, February 2014

  • Orlova, Ksenia; Shprits, Yuri
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019596

Activity-dependent global model of electron loss inside the plasmasphere: ELECTRON LIFETIMES DUE TO HISS
journal, June 2014

  • Orlova, Ksenia; Spasojevic, Maria; Shprits, Yuri
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060100

Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients: Analytic Radial Diffusion Coefficients
journal, March 2014

  • Ozeke, Louis G.; Mann, Ian R.; Murphy, Kyle R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019204

Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions: ENERGY-DEPENDENT RADIATION BELT DYNAMICS
journal, January 2016

  • Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Larsen, Brian A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021569

Dynamic evolution of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts
journal, September 2001

  • Réveillé, T.; Bertrand, P.; Ghizzo, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA900177

On long decays of electrons in the vicinity of the slot region observed by HEO3: HEO electron long decays in the slot
journal, January 2015

  • Ripoll, J. -F.; Chen, Y.; Fennell, J. F.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020449

Electron lifetimes from narrowband wave-particle interactions within the plasmasphere: Electron lifetimes from narrowband waves
journal, November 2014

  • Ripoll, J. -F.; Albert, J. M.; Cunningham, G. S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020217

Propagation analysis of plasmaspheric hiss using Polar PWI measurements
journal, March 2001

  • Santolík, O.; Parrot, M.; Storey, L. R. O.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000GL012239

Magnetic component of narrowband ion cyclotron waves in the auroral zone: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES NEAR
journal, December 2002

  • Santolík, O.; Pickett, J. S.; Gurnett, D. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 107, Issue A12
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001JA000146

Singular value decomposition methods for wave propagation analysis: SVD METHODS FOR WAVE PROPAGATION ANALYSIS
journal, February 2003


An empirical plasmasphere and trough density model: CRRES observations
journal, November 2001

  • Sheeley, B. W.; Moldwin, M. B.; Rassoul, H. K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2000JA000286

Time dependent radial diffusion modeling of relativistic electrons with realistic loss rates
journal, January 2004


Radial diffusion modeling with empirical lifetimes: comparison with CRRES observations
journal, January 2005


Review of modeling of losses and sources of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt II: Local acceleration and loss
journal, November 2008

  • Shprits, Yuri Y.; Subbotin, Dmitriy A.; Meredith, Nigel P.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 70, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.06.014

Evolution of electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt computed with the VERB code: VERB CODE
journal, November 2009

  • Shprits, Yuri Y.; Subbotin, Dmitri; Ni, Binbin
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013784

Global empirical models of plasmaspheric hiss using Van Allen Probes: HISS MODEL
journal, December 2015

  • Spasojevic, M.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Orlova, K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021803

Three-dimensional VERB radiation belt simulations including mixed diffusion: BRIEF REPORT
journal, March 2010

  • Subbotin, Dmitriy; Shprits, Yuri; Ni, Binbin
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA015070

Storm-dependent radiation belt electron dynamics: RADIATION BELT ELECTRON DYNAMICS
journal, February 2009

  • Tu, Weichao; Li, Xinlin; Chen, Yue
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A2
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013480

Modeling radiation belt electron dynamics during GEM challenge intervals with the DREAM3D diffusion model: MODELING RADIATION BELT WITH DREAM3D
journal, October 2013

  • Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, G. S.; Chen, Y.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50560

Event-specific chorus wave and electron seed population models in DREAM3D using the Van Allen Probes: Tu et al.: Event-specific chorus and seed electrons
journal, March 2014

  • Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, G. S.; Chen, Y.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058819

Energetic electron injections deep into the inner magnetosphere associated with substorm activity: Energetic particle injections at low L
journal, April 2015

  • Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL063225

Radial transport in the outer radiation belt due to global magnetospheric compressions
journal, November 2008

  • Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Sitnov, Mikhail I.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 70, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.018

Dynamics of Radiation Belt Particles
journal, November 2012


Enhanced radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons due to drift orbit bifurcations: TRANSPORT AT DRIFT ORBIT BIFURCATIONS
journal, January 2014

  • Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.; Millan, R. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019315

Chorus acceleration of radiation belt relativistic electrons during March 2013 geomagnetic storm
journal, May 2014

  • Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA019822

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Dynamics of Megaelectron Volt Electrons Observed in the Inner Belt by PROBA‐V/EPT
    journal, March 2019

    • Pierrard, V.; Lopez Rosson, G.; Botek, E.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018ja026289

    The Storm Time Development of Source Electrons and Chorus Wave Activity During CME‐ and CIR‐Driven Storms
    journal, August 2019

    • Bingham, S. T.; Mouikis, C. G.; Kistler, L. M.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026689

    Characterization and Evolution of Radiation Belt Electron Energy Spectra Based on the Van Allen Probes Measurements
    journal, June 2019

    • Zhao, H.; Johnston, W. R.; Baker, D. N.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026697

    The March 2015 Superstorm Revisited: Phase Space Density Profiles and Fast ULF Wave Diffusive Transport
    journal, February 2019

    • Ozeke, L. G.; Mann, I. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018ja026326

    Variability of Quasilinear Diffusion Coefficients for Plasmaspheric Hiss
    journal, November 2019

    • Watt, C. E. J.; Allison, H. J.; Meredith, N. P.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018ja026401

    Determination of the Equatorial Electron Differential Flux From Observations at Low Earth Orbit
    journal, November 2018

    • Allison, Hayley J.; Horne, Richard B.; Glauert, Sarah A.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 123, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018ja025786

    Plasmaspheric hiss waves generate a reversed energy spectrum of radiation belt electrons
    journal, January 2019


    Explaining the apparent impenetrable barrier to ultra-relativistic electrons in the outer Van Allen belt
    journal, May 2018


    On the Importance of Gradients in the Low‐Energy Electron Phase Space Density for Relativistic Electron Acceleration
    journal, April 2019

    • Allison, Hayley J.; Horne, Richard B.; Glauert, Sarah A.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
    • DOI: 10.1029/2019ja026516