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Title: Sound velocities in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite shocked to 18 GPa: Orientational order dependence and elastic instability

Previous reports of rapid phase transformation above 18 GPa [Erskine and Nellis, Nature 349, 317 (1991)] and large elastic waves below 18 GPa [Lucas et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 093515 (2013)] for shock-compressed ZYB-grade highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), but not for less oriented ZYH-grade HOPG, indicated a link between the orientational order dependence of the HOPG response above and below the phase transformation stress. To gain insight into this link and into the mechanical response of HOPG shocked to peak stresses approaching the phase transformation onset, the compressibility of ZYB- and ZYH-grade HOPG in the shocked state was examined using front surface impact experiments. Particle velocity histories and sound velocities were measured for peak stresses reaching 18 GPa. Although the locus of the measured peak stress-particle velocity states is indistinguishable for the two grades of HOPG, the measured sound velocities in the peak state reveal significant differences between the two grades. Specifically, 1) The measured sound velocities are somewhat higher for ZYH-grade HOPG, compared to ZYB-grade HOPG. 2) The measured sound velocities for ZYH-grade HOPG increase smoothly with compression, whereas those for ZYB-2 grade HOPG exhibit a significant reduction in the compression dependence from 12 GPa to 17 GPamore » and an abrupt increase from 17 GPa to 18 GPa. 3) The longitudinal moduli, determined from the measured sound velocities, are smaller than the calculated bulk moduli for ZYB-grade HOPG shocked to peak stresses above 15 GPa, indicating the onset of an elastic instability. The present findings demonstrate that the softening of the longitudinal modulus (or elastic instability) presented here is linked to the large elastic waves and the rapid phase transformation reported previously – all observed only for shocked ZYB-grade HOPG. The elastic instability in shocked ZYB-grade HOPG is likely a precursor to the rapid phase transformation observed above 18 GPa for this HOPG grade.« less
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  1. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. for Shock Physics
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 24; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. for Shock Physics
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Programs (DP) (NA-10)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1233951