skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The lithium vapor box divertor

Abstract

It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Our recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m -2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. Furthermore, at the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wisemore » calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required in order to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences
  2. Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1332555
Report Number(s):
5152
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-8949
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physica Scripta
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: T167; Conference: 15th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-8949
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Goldston, R. J., Myers, R., and Schwartz, J. The lithium vapor box divertor. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/t167/1/014017.
Goldston, R. J., Myers, R., & Schwartz, J. The lithium vapor box divertor. United States. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/t167/1/014017.
Goldston, R. J., Myers, R., and Schwartz, J. Wed . "The lithium vapor box divertor". United States. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/t167/1/014017. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1332555.
@article{osti_1332555,
title = {The lithium vapor box divertor},
author = {Goldston, R. J. and Myers, R. and Schwartz, J.},
abstractNote = {It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Our recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. Furthermore, at the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required in order to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.},
doi = {10.1088/0031-8949/t167/1/014017},
journal = {Physica Scripta},
number = ,
volume = T167,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Theoretical aspects and practical implications of the heuristic drift SOL model
journal, August 2015


A review of progress towards a next step divertor
journal, December 1993


A study with the EDGE2D code of the power exhaust problem in ITER relevant divertor plasmas
journal, April 1995


Divertor studies in nitrogen induced completely detached H-modes in full tungsten ASDEX Upgrade
journal, February 2015


Liquid lithium divertor system for fusion reactor
journal, June 2009


Cross sections for H + and H atoms colliding with Li in the low-keV-energy region
journal, July 2008


Lithium sputtering from lithium-coated plasma facing components in the NSTX divertor
journal, August 2015


Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment
journal, November 2013


A simple apparatus for the injection of lithium aerosol into the scrape-off layer of fusion research devices
journal, November 2010


Scaling of the tokamak near the scrape-off layer H-mode power width and implications for ITER
journal, August 2013


Collisional-radiative study of lithium plasmas
journal, June 2004


Experimental and numerical investigation of an axisymmetric supersonic jet
journal, January 2001


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Design and measurement methods for a lithium vapor box similarity experiment
    journal, October 2018

    • Schwartz, J. A.; Emdee, E. D.; Jaworski, M. A.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 89, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5039406