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Title: A graphite oxide (GO)-based remote readable tamper evident seal

Here, this paper presents a prototype of a remotely readable graphite oxide (GO) paper-based tamper evident seal. The proposed device combines the tunable electrical properties offered by reduced graphite oxide (RGO) with a compressive sampling scheme. The benefit of using RGO as a tamper evident seal material is the sensitivity of its electrical properties to the common mechanisms adopted to defeat tamper-evident seals. RGO’s electrical properties vary upon local stress or cracks induced by mechanical action (e.g., produced by shimming or lifting attacks). Further, modification of the seal’s electrical properties can result from the incidence of other defeat mechanisms, such as temperature changes, solvent treatment and steam application. The electrical tunability of RGO enables the engraving of a circuit on the area of the tamper evident seal intended to be exposed to malicious attacks. The operation of the tamper evident seal, as well as its remote communication functionality, is supervised by a microcontroller unit (MCU). The MCU uses the RGO-engraved circuitry to physically implement a compressive sampling acquisition procedure. The compressive sampling scheme provides the seal with self-authentication and self-state-of-health awareness capabilities. Finally, the prototype shows potential for use in low-power, embedded, remote-operation nonproliferation security related applications.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Engineering Inst.
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies
  3. Prairie View A&M Univ., Prairie View, TX (United States). Thermal Science Research Center
  4. Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.
  5. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0964-1726
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; 20130527ER
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Smart Materials and Structures
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0964-1726
IOP Publishing
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; US Dept. of State
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: