skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Impact of lubricant additives on the physicochemical properties and activity of three-way catalysts

Abstract

As alternative lubricant anti-wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, an oil-miscible phosphorous-containing ionic liquid (IL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate ([P66614][DEHP]), is evaluated for its impact on three-way catalysts (TWC) and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc-dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP). The TWCs are aged in different scenarios: neat gasoline (no-additive, or NA), gasoline+ZDDP, and gasoline+IL. The aged samples, along with the as received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench-flow reactor. The temperatures of 50% conversion (T50) for the ZDDP-aged TWCs increased by 30, 24, and 25 °C for NO, CO, and C3H6, respectively, compared to the no-additive case. Although the IL-aged TWC also increased in T50 for CO and C3H6, it was notably less than ZDDP, 7 and 9 °C, respectively. Additionally, the IL-aged samples had higher water-gas-shift reactivity and oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP-aged TWC. Characterization of the aged samples indicated the predominant presence of CePO4 in the ZDDP-aged TWC aged by ZDDP, while its formation was retarded in the case of IL where higher levels of AlPO4 is observed.more » Furthermore, the results in this work indicate that the phosphonium-phosphate IL potentially has less adverse impact on TWC than ZDDP.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1]; ;  [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. General Motors, Inc., Warren, MI (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tenneco, Inc., Grass Lake, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1253249
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Catalysts
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4344
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; three way catalysts; phosphorus deactivation; ZDDP; ionic liquid; lubricant additive

Citation Formats

Toops, Todd J., Lance, Michael J., Qu, Jun, Viola, Michael B, Lewis, Samuel Arthur, Leonard, Donovan N., Edward W. Hagaman, and Xie, Chao. Impact of lubricant additives on the physicochemical properties and activity of three-way catalysts. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3390/catal6040054.
Toops, Todd J., Lance, Michael J., Qu, Jun, Viola, Michael B, Lewis, Samuel Arthur, Leonard, Donovan N., Edward W. Hagaman, & Xie, Chao. Impact of lubricant additives on the physicochemical properties and activity of three-way catalysts. United States. doi:10.3390/catal6040054.
Toops, Todd J., Lance, Michael J., Qu, Jun, Viola, Michael B, Lewis, Samuel Arthur, Leonard, Donovan N., Edward W. Hagaman, and Xie, Chao. Mon . "Impact of lubricant additives on the physicochemical properties and activity of three-way catalysts". United States. doi:10.3390/catal6040054. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1253249.
@article{osti_1253249,
title = {Impact of lubricant additives on the physicochemical properties and activity of three-way catalysts},
author = {Toops, Todd J. and Lance, Michael J. and Qu, Jun and Viola, Michael B and Lewis, Samuel Arthur and Leonard, Donovan N. and Edward W. Hagaman and Xie, Chao},
abstractNote = {As alternative lubricant anti-wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, an oil-miscible phosphorous-containing ionic liquid (IL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate ([P66614][DEHP]), is evaluated for its impact on three-way catalysts (TWC) and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc-dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP). The TWCs are aged in different scenarios: neat gasoline (no-additive, or NA), gasoline+ZDDP, and gasoline+IL. The aged samples, along with the as received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench-flow reactor. The temperatures of 50% conversion (T50) for the ZDDP-aged TWCs increased by 30, 24, and 25 °C for NO, CO, and C3H6, respectively, compared to the no-additive case. Although the IL-aged TWC also increased in T50 for CO and C3H6, it was notably less than ZDDP, 7 and 9 °C, respectively. Additionally, the IL-aged samples had higher water-gas-shift reactivity and oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP-aged TWC. Characterization of the aged samples indicated the predominant presence of CePO4 in the ZDDP-aged TWC aged by ZDDP, while its formation was retarded in the case of IL where higher levels of AlPO4 is observed. Furthermore, the results in this work indicate that the phosphonium-phosphate IL potentially has less adverse impact on TWC than ZDDP.},
doi = {10.3390/catal6040054},
journal = {Catalysts},
number = 4,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Catalyst Deactivation Due to Glaze Formation from Oil-Derived Phosphorus and Zinc
conference, October 1984

  • Williamson, W. B.; Perry, J.; Goss, R. L.
  • 1984 SAE International Fall Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/841406

The Impact of Passenger Car Motor Oil Phosphorus Levels on Engine Durability, Oil Degradation, and Exhaust Emissions in a Field Trial
conference, October 1995

  • Culley, Scott A.; McDonnell, Thomas F.
  • 1995 SAE International Fall Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/952344

Effects of Oil-Derived Contaminants on Emissions from TWC-Equipped Vehicles
conference, June 2000

  • Darr, S. T.; Choksi, R. A.; Hubbard, C. P.
  • CEC/SAE Spring Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exposition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2000-01-1881

Characterization of phosphorus-poisoned automotive exhaust catalysts
journal, October 2001


Observation of cerium phosphate in aged automotive catalysts using Raman spectroscopy
journal, March 2003


Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts by Oil-Derived Phosphorus
conference, October 2006

  • Eaton, Scott J.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.
  • Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference and Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2006-01-3422

Phosphorous Poisoning and Phosphorous Exhaust Chemistry with Diesel Oxidation Catalysts
conference, April 2005

  • Bunting, Bruce G.; More, Karren; Lewis, Sam
  • SAE 2005 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2005-01-1758

Development of an Engine-Based Catalytic Converter Poisoning Test to Assess the Impact of Volatile ZDDP Decomposition Products from Passenger Car Engine Oils
conference, October 2007

  • Guinther, Gregory H.; Danner, Michael M.
  • Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference and Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2007-01-4079

Low Volatility ZDDP Technology: Part 2 - Exhaust Catalysts Performance in Field Applications
conference, October 2007

  • Bardasz, Ewa A.; Schiferl, Elizabeth; Nahumck, William
  • Powertrain & Fluid Systems Conference and Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2007-01-4107

Thermal and chemical aging of model three-way catalyst Pd/Al2O3 and its impact on the conversion of CNG vehicle exhaust
journal, April 2012


Time resolved operando spectroscopic study of the origin of phosphorus induced chemical aging of model three-way catalysts Pd/Al2O3
journal, April 2013


Antiwear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive
journal, February 2012

  • Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G.; Yu, Bo
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 4, Issue 2, p. 997-1002
  • DOI: 10.1021/am201646k

Comparison of an oil-miscible ionic liquid and ZDDP as a lubricant anti-wear additive
journal, March 2014


Phosphonium-Organophosphate Ionic Liquids as Lubricant Additives: Effects of Cation Structure on Physicochemical and Tribological Characteristics
journal, December 2014

  • Barnhill, William C.; Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 6, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1021/am506702u

Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives
journal, July 2015

  • Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201502037

Tribological Bench and Engine Dynamometer Tests of a Low Viscosity SAE 0W-16 Engine Oil Using a Combination of Ionic Liquid and ZDDP as Anti-Wear Additives
journal, September 2015

  • Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem
  • Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 1
  • DOI: 10.3389/fmech.2015.00012

Lubricating Oil Consumption on the Standard Road Cycle
conference, April 2013

  • West, Brian; Sluder, C. Scott
  • SAE 2013 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE Technical Paper Series
  • DOI: 10.4271/2013-01-0884

Impact of sulfation and desulfation on NO reduction using Cu-chabazite SCR catalysts
journal, December 2015


CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMORPHIC CERIUM PHOSPHATES AS STUDIED BY SOLID-STATE HIGH-RESOLUTION <SUP>31</SUP>P NMR
journal, January 1998

  • Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki; Tsuhako, Mitsutomo
  • Phosphorus Research Bulletin, Vol. 8, Issue 0
  • DOI: 10.3363/prb1992.8.0_89

Deactivation of real three way catalysts by CePO4 formation
journal, February 2003


Role of P-containing species in phosphated CeO2 in the deterioration of its oxygen storage and release properties
journal, April 2006


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Combination of a protic ionic liquid-like surfactant and biocompatible solvents to generate environmentally friendly anionic reverse micelles
    journal, January 2019

    • Dib, Nahir; Silber, Juana J.; Correa, N. Mariano
    • New Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 43, Issue 26
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nj02268f

    Combination of a protic ionic liquid-like surfactant and biocompatible solvents to generate environmentally friendly anionic reverse micelles
    journal, January 2019

    • Dib, Nahir; Silber, Juana J.; Correa, N. Mariano
    • New Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 43, Issue 26
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nj02268f