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Title: Impact of Lubricant Oil Additives on the Performance of Pd-Based Three-Way Catalysts

Abstract

As alternative lubricant anti-wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, a second-generation oil-miscible phosphorous-containing ionic liquid (IL), is evaluated for its impact on Pd-based three-way catalyst (TWC) reactivity and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP). The TWCs are exposed to the lubricant additives in an engine bench under four different scenarios: base case with no additive (NA), ZDDP-only, IL-only, and IL + ZDDP. The engine-aged TWC samples, along with the as-received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench-flow reactor. The temperature of 50% conversion (T50) for the ZDDP-aged TWC increases by 11, 21, and 36 °C for CO, C3H6, and C3H8, respectively, as compared with the no-additive case. Similarly, the T50 for IL-only and IL + ZDDP-aged TWCs also increase as compared with the no-additive case. Even though the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactivity is similar for all engine-aged samples, the IL-aged TWC had higher oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP-aged TWC. EPMA analysis reveals penetration of phosphorus deep into the washcoat for all engine-aged TWCs. Results from XRD indicatemore » the presence of CePO4 and AlPO4 on the washcoat of IL, ZDDP, and IL + ZDDP-aged TWC samples but not on the fresh and NA TWC samples. Additionally, ICP-OES results show a large amount of phosphorus in the washcoat of IL, ZDDP and IL + ZDDP-aged TWC samples and a lesser amount in NA TWC samples.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1630523
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Emission Control Science & Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2199-3629
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Kim, Dae-Kun, Toops, Todd, Nguyen, Ke, Brookshear, Daniel, Lance, Michael J., and Qu, Jun. Impact of Lubricant Oil Additives on the Performance of Pd-Based Three-Way Catalysts. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40825-019-00138-x.
Kim, Dae-Kun, Toops, Todd, Nguyen, Ke, Brookshear, Daniel, Lance, Michael J., & Qu, Jun. Impact of Lubricant Oil Additives on the Performance of Pd-Based Three-Way Catalysts. United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40825-019-00138-x
Kim, Dae-Kun, Toops, Todd, Nguyen, Ke, Brookshear, Daniel, Lance, Michael J., and Qu, Jun. Sat . "Impact of Lubricant Oil Additives on the Performance of Pd-Based Three-Way Catalysts". United States. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40825-019-00138-x. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1630523.
@article{osti_1630523,
title = {Impact of Lubricant Oil Additives on the Performance of Pd-Based Three-Way Catalysts},
author = {Kim, Dae-Kun and Toops, Todd and Nguyen, Ke and Brookshear, Daniel and Lance, Michael J. and Qu, Jun},
abstractNote = {As alternative lubricant anti-wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, a second-generation oil-miscible phosphorous-containing ionic liquid (IL), is evaluated for its impact on Pd-based three-way catalyst (TWC) reactivity and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP). The TWCs are exposed to the lubricant additives in an engine bench under four different scenarios: base case with no additive (NA), ZDDP-only, IL-only, and IL + ZDDP. The engine-aged TWC samples, along with the as-received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench-flow reactor. The temperature of 50% conversion (T50) for the ZDDP-aged TWC increases by 11, 21, and 36 °C for CO, C3H6, and C3H8, respectively, as compared with the no-additive case. Similarly, the T50 for IL-only and IL + ZDDP-aged TWCs also increase as compared with the no-additive case. Even though the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactivity is similar for all engine-aged samples, the IL-aged TWC had higher oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP-aged TWC. EPMA analysis reveals penetration of phosphorus deep into the washcoat for all engine-aged TWCs. Results from XRD indicate the presence of CePO4 and AlPO4 on the washcoat of IL, ZDDP, and IL + ZDDP-aged TWC samples but not on the fresh and NA TWC samples. Additionally, ICP-OES results show a large amount of phosphorus in the washcoat of IL, ZDDP and IL + ZDDP-aged TWC samples and a lesser amount in NA TWC samples.},
doi = {10.1007/s40825-019-00138-x},
journal = {Emission Control Science & Technology},
number = 2,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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