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Title: Operando NMR and XRD study of chemically synthesized LiCx oxidation in a dry room environment

We test the stability of pre-lithiated graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries in a dry room battery processing room. The reaction between LiCx and laboratory air was followed using operando NMR and x-ray diffraction as these methods are sensitive to change in Li stoichiometry in graphite. There is minimal reactivity between LiC 6 and N 2, CO 2 or O 2; however, LiC 6 reacts with moisture to form lithium (hydr)oxide. The reaction rate follows zero-order kinetics with respects to intercalated lithium suggesting that lithium transport through the graphite is fast. The reaction mechanism occurs by sequential formation of higher stages LiC 12, then LiC 18, and then LiC 24 as the hydrolysis proceeds to the formation of Li xOH y and graphite end products. Slowing down the formation rate of the Li xOH y passivation layer stabilizes of the higher stages.
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  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 287; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; lithium intercalation; solid-state synthesis; solid electrolyte interphase; battery processing; Li NMR
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1253050