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Title: Overview of the fusion nuclear science facility, a credible break-in step on the path to fusion energy

Abstract

The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is examined here as part of a two step program from ITER to commercial power plants. This first step is considered mandatory to establish the materials and component database in the real fusion in-service environment before proceeding to larger electricity producing facilities. The FNSF can be shown to make tremendous advances beyond ITER, toward a power plant, particularly in plasma duration and fusion nuclear environment. A moderate FNSF is studied in detail, which does not generate net electricity, but does reach the power plant blanket operating temperatures. The full poloidal Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) blanket is chosen, with alternates being the Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeder/Pebble Bed (HCCB/PB). Several power plant relevant choices are made in order to follow the philosophy of targeted technologies. Any fusion core component must be qualified by fusion relevant neutron testing and highly integrated non-nuclear testing before it can be installed on the FNSF in order to avoid the high probability of constant failures in a plasma-vacuum system. A range of missions for the FNSF, or any fusion nuclear facility on the path toward fusion power plants, are established and characterized by severalmore » metrics. A conservative physics strategy is pursued to accommodate the transition to ultra-long plasma pulses, and parameters are chosen to represent the power plant regime to the extent possible. An operating space is identified, and from this, one point is chosen for further detailed analysis, with R = 4.8 m, a = 1.2 m, IP = 7.9 MA, BT = 7.5 T, βN Gr = 0.9, fBS = 0.52, q95 = 6.0, H98 ∼1.0, and Q = 4.0. The operating space is shown to be robust to parameter variations. A program is established for the FNSF to show how the missions for the facility are met, with a He/H, a DD and 5 DT phases. The facility requires ∼25 years to complete its DT operation, including 7.8 years of neutron production, and the remaining spent on inspections and maintenance. The DD phase is critical to establish the ultra-long plasma pulse lengths. The blanket testing strategy is examined, and shows that many sectors have penetrations for heating and current drive (H/CD), diagnostics, or Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). The hot cell is a critical facility element in order for the FNSF to perform its function of developing the in-service material and component database. The pre-FNSF R&D is laid out in terms of priority topics, with the FNSF phases driving the time-lines for R&D completion. A series of detailed technical assessments of the FNSF operating point are reported in this issue, showing the credibility of such a step, and more detailed emphasis on R&D items to pursue. These include nuclear analysis, thermo-mechanics and thermal-hydraulics, liquid metal thermal hydraulics, transient thermo-mechanics, tritium analysis, maintenance assessment, magnet specification and analysis, materials assessments, core and scrape-off layer (SOL)/divertor plasma examinations.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
DOE Contract Number:  
FC02-93ER54186
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY
OSTI Identifier:
1881850
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/QWO2PA

Citation Formats

Kessel, C. E., Blanchard, J. P., Davis, A., El Guebaly, L., Garrison, L. M., Ghoniem, N. M., Humrickhouse, P. W., Huang, Y., Katoh, Y., Khodak, A., Marriott, E. P., Malang, S., Morley, N. B., Neilson, G. H., Rapp, J., Rensink, M. E., Rognlien, T. D., Rowcliffe, A. F., Smolentsev, S., Snead, L. L., Tillack, M. S., Titus, P., Waganer, L. M., Wallace, G. M., Wukitch, S. J., Ying, A., Young, K., and Zhai, Y. Overview of the fusion nuclear science facility, a credible break-in step on the path to fusion energy. United States: N. p., 2021. Web. doi:10.7910/DVN/QWO2PA.
Kessel, C. E., Blanchard, J. P., Davis, A., El Guebaly, L., Garrison, L. M., Ghoniem, N. M., Humrickhouse, P. W., Huang, Y., Katoh, Y., Khodak, A., Marriott, E. P., Malang, S., Morley, N. B., Neilson, G. H., Rapp, J., Rensink, M. E., Rognlien, T. D., Rowcliffe, A. F., Smolentsev, S., Snead, L. L., Tillack, M. S., Titus, P., Waganer, L. M., Wallace, G. M., Wukitch, S. J., Ying, A., Young, K., & Zhai, Y. Overview of the fusion nuclear science facility, a credible break-in step on the path to fusion energy. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/QWO2PA
Kessel, C. E., Blanchard, J. P., Davis, A., El Guebaly, L., Garrison, L. M., Ghoniem, N. M., Humrickhouse, P. W., Huang, Y., Katoh, Y., Khodak, A., Marriott, E. P., Malang, S., Morley, N. B., Neilson, G. H., Rapp, J., Rensink, M. E., Rognlien, T. D., Rowcliffe, A. F., Smolentsev, S., Snead, L. L., Tillack, M. S., Titus, P., Waganer, L. M., Wallace, G. M., Wukitch, S. J., Ying, A., Young, K., and Zhai, Y. 2021. "Overview of the fusion nuclear science facility, a credible break-in step on the path to fusion energy". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/QWO2PA. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1881850. Pub date:Wed Mar 24 00:00:00 EDT 2021
@article{osti_1881850,
title = {Overview of the fusion nuclear science facility, a credible break-in step on the path to fusion energy},
author = {Kessel, C. E. and Blanchard, J. P. and Davis, A. and El Guebaly, L. and Garrison, L. M. and Ghoniem, N. M. and Humrickhouse, P. W. and Huang, Y. and Katoh, Y. and Khodak, A. and Marriott, E. P. and Malang, S. and Morley, N. B. and Neilson, G. H. and Rapp, J. and Rensink, M. E. and Rognlien, T. D. and Rowcliffe, A. F. and Smolentsev, S. and Snead, L. L. and Tillack, M. S. and Titus, P. and Waganer, L. M. and Wallace, G. M. and Wukitch, S. J. and Ying, A. and Young, K. and Zhai, Y.},
abstractNote = {The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is examined here as part of a two step program from ITER to commercial power plants. This first step is considered mandatory to establish the materials and component database in the real fusion in-service environment before proceeding to larger electricity producing facilities. The FNSF can be shown to make tremendous advances beyond ITER, toward a power plant, particularly in plasma duration and fusion nuclear environment. A moderate FNSF is studied in detail, which does not generate net electricity, but does reach the power plant blanket operating temperatures. The full poloidal Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) blanket is chosen, with alternates being the Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeder/Pebble Bed (HCCB/PB). Several power plant relevant choices are made in order to follow the philosophy of targeted technologies. Any fusion core component must be qualified by fusion relevant neutron testing and highly integrated non-nuclear testing before it can be installed on the FNSF in order to avoid the high probability of constant failures in a plasma-vacuum system. A range of missions for the FNSF, or any fusion nuclear facility on the path toward fusion power plants, are established and characterized by several metrics. A conservative physics strategy is pursued to accommodate the transition to ultra-long plasma pulses, and parameters are chosen to represent the power plant regime to the extent possible. An operating space is identified, and from this, one point is chosen for further detailed analysis, with R = 4.8 m, a = 1.2 m, IP = 7.9 MA, BT = 7.5 T, βN Gr = 0.9, fBS = 0.52, q95 = 6.0, H98 ∼1.0, and Q = 4.0. The operating space is shown to be robust to parameter variations. A program is established for the FNSF to show how the missions for the facility are met, with a He/H, a DD and 5 DT phases. The facility requires ∼25 years to complete its DT operation, including 7.8 years of neutron production, and the remaining spent on inspections and maintenance. The DD phase is critical to establish the ultra-long plasma pulse lengths. The blanket testing strategy is examined, and shows that many sectors have penetrations for heating and current drive (H/CD), diagnostics, or Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). The hot cell is a critical facility element in order for the FNSF to perform its function of developing the in-service material and component database. The pre-FNSF R&D is laid out in terms of priority topics, with the FNSF phases driving the time-lines for R&D completion. A series of detailed technical assessments of the FNSF operating point are reported in this issue, showing the credibility of such a step, and more detailed emphasis on R&D items to pursue. These include nuclear analysis, thermo-mechanics and thermal-hydraulics, liquid metal thermal hydraulics, transient thermo-mechanics, tritium analysis, maintenance assessment, magnet specification and analysis, materials assessments, core and scrape-off layer (SOL)/divertor plasma examinations.},
doi = {10.7910/DVN/QWO2PA},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2021},
month = {3}
}

Works referencing / citing this record:

Overview of the fusion nuclear science facility, a credible break-in step on the path to fusion energy
journal, October 2018