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Title: Size-resolved ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations from the MOSAiC campaign

Abstract

Sample collection: Ground-based immersion mode ice nucleation measurements were conducted on samples collected at the U.S. DOE ARM AMF2 onboard the R/V Polarstern P-deck during MOSAiC from 23 Oct 2019 to 01 Oct 2020. Samples were collected using a Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring (DRUM; DRUMAir, LLC) cascading impactor in 4 stages (i.e., size bins). Instrument information on the model used, the DA400, can be found at the DRUMAir website (http://www.drumair.com/). Stages A, B, C, and D had particle size cuts at 2.96, 1.21, 0.34, and 0.15 µm in particle diameter, respectively. Strips of sample substrate (PFA, perfluoroalkoxy; McMaster) were adhered to each disc in each stage and coated with petrolatum to enable particles to stick on impact. The discs move slowly over time, such that aerosol loading is streaked onto the PFA. Every 24 hours, a blank is created on the PFA to separate daily samples. During MOSAiC, the pump typically pulled 20 – 35 lpm (average of 32 lpm) at the inlet with all the discs in place in each stage. Daily samples were collected for each of the four stages, equaling 28,800 – 50,400 total L of air (average of 46,080 L total L of air) permore » sample. Discs rotated for approximately 24 days before the sampling per strip was complete and changed to a new disc. Discs were stored frozen after collection. Sample preparation for analysis: Following collection and transport from MOSAiC to the Kreidenweis/DeMott laboratory, care of PI Creamean, in Fort Collins, CO, strips were removed from the discs and cut up to separate daily samples. Each daily portion of the strip was stored in separate sterile 15-mL centrifuge tubes and stored in a standard commercial freezer until analysis (approximately 4 – 12 months after collection). Sample analysis: Drop freezing assays (DFAs) were conducted on one daily sample set every 3 – 4 days of the study for all four stages using the Colorado State University (CSU) cold plate (CP). Sample set days were chosen to cover the entire year of MOSAiC and avoiding days where the AOS purge system was activated. Immediately after removal from the freezer, 2 mL of 0.1-µm filtered deionized water was added with a single-use sterile syringe directly to the tubes, then mixed using a vortex mixer for at least 30 minutes at 500 rpm to resuspend particles from the PFA into the deionized water. Following sample preparation, another single-use syringe was used to create 100 aliquots on a 3-inch diameter copper plate, then covered with a transparent plastic dome. The drops were approximately the same volume (2.5 µL each), though careful inspection. The plate was cooled at approximately 3 – 10 K min-1 from room temperature until all drops froze on the plate. Temperature was measured by an Omega thermocouple probes and meter. Drop freezing was visually detected but recorded through monitoring software to provide the time frozen, channel of the meter used, temperature, and cooling rate for each drop. Not all 100 drops were always detected; the total number of rows in each data file equals the number of drops recorded, which typically was > 80 %. Each sample was tested three times (i.e., a new set of 100 drops was created for each test). Data provided are files containing these parameters. From the freezing temperatures recorded, the fraction frozen was and INP concentrations were calculated per L of air using the equation from Vali (1971): [INPs] = −(ln(f)/Valiquot)*(Vsuspension/Vair) where f is the proportion of droplets not frozen, Valiquot is the volume of each aliquot (i.e., 2.5e-6 L), Vsuspension is the volume of the suspension (i.e., 0.002 L), and Vair is the volume of air per sample (i.e., 36000 L). Data usage guidance: There are three files included with this dataset: (1) dumcp_inp_concentrations.csv which includes cumulative INP concentrations binned every 0.5 °C from 0 to –30 °C for all samples and size ranges (i.e., DRUM stages) processed via DFA using the CSU CP; (2) dumcp_inp_standard_deviation.csv which includes the standard deviations for all samples and temperatures in dumcp_inp_concentrations.csv; and (3) dumcp_blank_concentrations_standard_deviation.csv which includes the INP concentrations and standard deviations for the deionized water and PFA blanks binned every 0.5 °C from 0 to –30 °C. The first column in each file represents the freezing temperature in °C binned every 0.5 °C from 0 to –30 °C (first cell in this column = header = “temp”). The second column in each file represents the standard deviation of each temperature bin in °C (first cell in this column = header = “temperr”). For file (1) dumcp_inp_concentrations.csv, the remaining columns indicate the INP concentrations per L of air for each temperature bin. For each sample column, the header in the first row indicates the stage (i.e., size bin as “A_”, “B_”, “C_”, or “D_”) and date (“_yyyymmdd) of collection. For file (2) dumcp_inp_standard_deviation.csv, the remaining columns indicate the INP concentration standard deviation per L of air for each temperature bin. For each sample column, the header in the first row indicates the stage (i.e., size bin as “A_”, “B_”, “C_”, or “D_”) and date (“_yyyymmdd) of collection. For file (3) dumcp_blank_concentrations_standard_deviation.csv, the remaining columns indicate the INP concentrations and standard deviations for the deionized water blank (“di_0.1” and “di_0.1sd” for the concentrations and standard deviations, respectively) and PFA blank (“pfa” and “pfasd” for the concentrations and standard deviations, respectively).   Please see Creamean et al. (2019a; 2018a; 2018b; 2019b) for additional details on DRUM sample collection and offline processing. For questions or help with data interpretation, contact Dr. Jessie Creamean (jessie.creamean@colostate.edu). References: Creamean, J. M., Mignani, C., Bukowiecki, N., and Conen, F.: Using spectra characteristics to identify ice nucleating particle populations during winter storms in the Alps, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8123–8140, 2019a. Creamean, J. M., Kirpes, R. M., Pratt, K. A., Spada, N. S., Maahn, M., de Boer, G., Schnell, R. C., and China, S.: Marine and terrestrial influences on ice nucleating particles during continuous springtime measurements in an Arctic oilfield location, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 18023-18042, 10.5194/acp-18-18023-2018, 2018a. Creamean, J. M., Primm, K. M., Tolbert, M. A., Hall, E. G., Wendell, J., Jordan, A., Sheridan, P. J., Smith, J., and Schnell, R. C.: HOVERCAT: A novel aerial system for evaluation of aerosol-cloud interactions, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11, 3969-3985, 10.5194/amt-11-3969-2018, 2018b. Creamean, J. M., Cross, J. N., Pickart, R., McRaven, L., Lin, P., Pacini, A., Hanlon, R., Schmale, D. G., Ceniceros, J., Aydell, T., Colombi, N., Bolger, E., and DeMott, P. J.: Ice nucleating particles carried from below a phytoplankton bloom to the Arctic atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 8572-8581, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083039, 2019b. Vali, G.: Quantitative Evaluation of Experimental Results an the Heterogeneous Freezing Nucleation of Supercooled Liquids, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 28, 402-409, 10.1175/1520-0469(1971)028<0402:qeoera>2.0.co;2, 1971.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Center
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
Collaborations:
PNNL, BNL, ANL, ORNL
Subject:
54 Environmental Sciences
Keywords:
4-stage DRUM aerosol collector (DA400),Ice nuclei, ARM, DOE.
OSTI Identifier:
1798162
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.5439/1798162

Citation Formats

Creamean, Jessie. Size-resolved ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations from the MOSAiC campaign. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.5439/1798162.
Creamean, Jessie. Size-resolved ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations from the MOSAiC campaign. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.5439/1798162
Creamean, Jessie. 2019. "Size-resolved ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations from the MOSAiC campaign". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.5439/1798162. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1798162. Pub date:Wed Oct 23 00:00:00 EDT 2019
@article{osti_1798162,
title = {Size-resolved ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations from the MOSAiC campaign},
author = {Creamean, Jessie},
abstractNote = {Sample collection: Ground-based immersion mode ice nucleation measurements were conducted on samples collected at the U.S. DOE ARM AMF2 onboard the R/V Polarstern P-deck during MOSAiC from 23 Oct 2019 to 01 Oct 2020. Samples were collected using a Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring (DRUM; DRUMAir, LLC) cascading impactor in 4 stages (i.e., size bins). Instrument information on the model used, the DA400, can be found at the DRUMAir website (http://www.drumair.com/). Stages A, B, C, and D had particle size cuts at 2.96, 1.21, 0.34, and 0.15 µm in particle diameter, respectively. Strips of sample substrate (PFA, perfluoroalkoxy; McMaster) were adhered to each disc in each stage and coated with petrolatum to enable particles to stick on impact. The discs move slowly over time, such that aerosol loading is streaked onto the PFA. Every 24 hours, a blank is created on the PFA to separate daily samples. During MOSAiC, the pump typically pulled 20 – 35 lpm (average of 32 lpm) at the inlet with all the discs in place in each stage. Daily samples were collected for each of the four stages, equaling 28,800 – 50,400 total L of air (average of 46,080 L total L of air) per sample. Discs rotated for approximately 24 days before the sampling per strip was complete and changed to a new disc. Discs were stored frozen after collection. Sample preparation for analysis: Following collection and transport from MOSAiC to the Kreidenweis/DeMott laboratory, care of PI Creamean, in Fort Collins, CO, strips were removed from the discs and cut up to separate daily samples. Each daily portion of the strip was stored in separate sterile 15-mL centrifuge tubes and stored in a standard commercial freezer until analysis (approximately 4 – 12 months after collection). Sample analysis: Drop freezing assays (DFAs) were conducted on one daily sample set every 3 – 4 days of the study for all four stages using the Colorado State University (CSU) cold plate (CP). Sample set days were chosen to cover the entire year of MOSAiC and avoiding days where the AOS purge system was activated. Immediately after removal from the freezer, 2 mL of 0.1-µm filtered deionized water was added with a single-use sterile syringe directly to the tubes, then mixed using a vortex mixer for at least 30 minutes at 500 rpm to resuspend particles from the PFA into the deionized water. Following sample preparation, another single-use syringe was used to create 100 aliquots on a 3-inch diameter copper plate, then covered with a transparent plastic dome. The drops were approximately the same volume (2.5 µL each), though careful inspection. The plate was cooled at approximately 3 – 10 K min-1 from room temperature until all drops froze on the plate. Temperature was measured by an Omega thermocouple probes and meter. Drop freezing was visually detected but recorded through monitoring software to provide the time frozen, channel of the meter used, temperature, and cooling rate for each drop. Not all 100 drops were always detected; the total number of rows in each data file equals the number of drops recorded, which typically was > 80 %. Each sample was tested three times (i.e., a new set of 100 drops was created for each test). Data provided are files containing these parameters. From the freezing temperatures recorded, the fraction frozen was and INP concentrations were calculated per L of air using the equation from Vali (1971): [INPs] = −(ln(f)/Valiquot)*(Vsuspension/Vair) where f is the proportion of droplets not frozen, Valiquot is the volume of each aliquot (i.e., 2.5e-6 L), Vsuspension is the volume of the suspension (i.e., 0.002 L), and Vair is the volume of air per sample (i.e., 36000 L). Data usage guidance: There are three files included with this dataset: (1) dumcp_inp_concentrations.csv which includes cumulative INP concentrations binned every 0.5 °C from 0 to –30 °C for all samples and size ranges (i.e., DRUM stages) processed via DFA using the CSU CP; (2) dumcp_inp_standard_deviation.csv which includes the standard deviations for all samples and temperatures in dumcp_inp_concentrations.csv; and (3) dumcp_blank_concentrations_standard_deviation.csv which includes the INP concentrations and standard deviations for the deionized water and PFA blanks binned every 0.5 °C from 0 to –30 °C. The first column in each file represents the freezing temperature in °C binned every 0.5 °C from 0 to –30 °C (first cell in this column = header = “temp”). The second column in each file represents the standard deviation of each temperature bin in °C (first cell in this column = header = “temperr”). For file (1) dumcp_inp_concentrations.csv, the remaining columns indicate the INP concentrations per L of air for each temperature bin. For each sample column, the header in the first row indicates the stage (i.e., size bin as “A_”, “B_”, “C_”, or “D_”) and date (“_yyyymmdd) of collection. For file (2) dumcp_inp_standard_deviation.csv, the remaining columns indicate the INP concentration standard deviation per L of air for each temperature bin. For each sample column, the header in the first row indicates the stage (i.e., size bin as “A_”, “B_”, “C_”, or “D_”) and date (“_yyyymmdd) of collection. For file (3) dumcp_blank_concentrations_standard_deviation.csv, the remaining columns indicate the INP concentrations and standard deviations for the deionized water blank (“di_0.1” and “di_0.1sd” for the concentrations and standard deviations, respectively) and PFA blank (“pfa” and “pfasd” for the concentrations and standard deviations, respectively).   Please see Creamean et al. (2019a; 2018a; 2018b; 2019b) for additional details on DRUM sample collection and offline processing. For questions or help with data interpretation, contact Dr. Jessie Creamean (jessie.creamean@colostate.edu). References: Creamean, J. M., Mignani, C., Bukowiecki, N., and Conen, F.: Using spectra characteristics to identify ice nucleating particle populations during winter storms in the Alps, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8123–8140, 2019a. Creamean, J. M., Kirpes, R. M., Pratt, K. A., Spada, N. S., Maahn, M., de Boer, G., Schnell, R. C., and China, S.: Marine and terrestrial influences on ice nucleating particles during continuous springtime measurements in an Arctic oilfield location, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18, 18023-18042, 10.5194/acp-18-18023-2018, 2018a. Creamean, J. M., Primm, K. M., Tolbert, M. A., Hall, E. G., Wendell, J., Jordan, A., Sheridan, P. J., Smith, J., and Schnell, R. C.: HOVERCAT: A novel aerial system for evaluation of aerosol-cloud interactions, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11, 3969-3985, 10.5194/amt-11-3969-2018, 2018b. Creamean, J. M., Cross, J. N., Pickart, R., McRaven, L., Lin, P., Pacini, A., Hanlon, R., Schmale, D. G., Ceniceros, J., Aydell, T., Colombi, N., Bolger, E., and DeMott, P. J.: Ice nucleating particles carried from below a phytoplankton bloom to the Arctic atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 8572-8581, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083039, 2019b. Vali, G.: Quantitative Evaluation of Experimental Results an the Heterogeneous Freezing Nucleation of Supercooled Liquids, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 28, 402-409, 10.1175/1520-0469(1971)028<0402:qeoera>2.0.co;2, 1971.},
doi = {10.5439/1798162},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}