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Title: Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

Abstract

This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating.more » The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
986606
Report Number(s):
SAND2009-0035
TRN: US201018%%346
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
08 HYDROGEN; ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE; BOUNDARY CONDITIONS; ENTRAINMENT; FROUDE NUMBER; GASES; HEATING; HYDROGEN; HYDROGEN STORAGE; MIXTURES; SIMULATION; SUPERSONIC FLOW; THERMODYNAMIC MODEL; VELOCITY; Liquid hydrogen.; Thermodynamic properties.; Hydrogen-Thermodynamic properties.

Citation Formats

Winters, William Stanley, Jr. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.2172/986606.
Winters, William Stanley, Jr. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.. United States. doi:10.2172/986606.
Winters, William Stanley, Jr. Thu . "Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.". United States. doi:10.2172/986606. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/986606.
@article{osti_986606,
title = {Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.},
author = {Winters, William Stanley, Jr.},
abstractNote = {This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.},
doi = {10.2172/986606},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2009},
month = {Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2009}
}

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