skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Chapter 8: Selective Stoichiometric and Catalytic Reactivity in the Confines of a Chiral Supramolecular Assembly

Abstract

Nature uses enzymes to activate otherwise unreactive compounds in remarkable ways. For example, DNases are capable of hydrolyzing phosphate diester bonds in DNA within seconds,[1-3]--a reaction with an estimated half-life of 200 million years without an enzyme.[4] The fundamental features of enzyme catalysis have been much discussed over the last sixty years in an effort to explain the dramatic rate increases and high selectivities of enzymes. As early as 1946, Linus Pauling suggested that enzymes must preferentially recognize and stabilize the transition state over the ground state of a substrate.[5] Despite the intense study of enzymatic selectivity and ability to catalyze chemical reactions, the entire nature of enzyme-based catalysis is still poorly understood. For example, Houk and co-workers recently reported a survey of binding affinities in a wide variety of enzyme-ligand, enzyme-transition-state, and synthetic host-guest complexes and found that the average binding affinities were insufficient to generate many of the rate accelerations observed in biological systems.[6] Therefore, transition-state stabilization cannot be the sole contributor to the high reactivity and selectivity of enzymes, but rather, other forces must contribute to the activation of substrate molecules. Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of Nature, synthetic chemists have admired the ability of enzymesmore » to activate otherwise unreactive molecules in the confines of an active site. Although much less complex than the evolved active sites of enzymes, synthetic host molecules have been developed that can carry out complex reactions with their cavities. While progress has been made toward highly efficient and selective reactivity inside of synthetic hosts, the lofty goal of duplicating enzymes specificity remains.[7-9] Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry has evolved well beyond the crown ethers and cryptands originally studied.[10-12] Despite the increased complexity of synthetic host molecules, most assembly conditions utilize self-assembly to form complex highly-symmetric structures from relatively simple subunits. For supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules, the chemical environment in each assembly--defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability--greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics.[6, 13-17]« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Chemical Sciences Division
OSTI Identifier:
927154
Report Number(s):
LBNL-164E
TRN: US200810%%230
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Book
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37; CATALYSIS; CAVITIES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHEMISTRY; CROWN ETHERS; DNA; EFFICIENCY; ENZYMES; FUNCTIONALS; GROUND STATES; HALF-LIFE; PHOSPHATES; SHAPE; SPECIFICITY; STABILIZATION; SUBSTRATES; DNA stoichiometric catalytic reactivity

Citation Formats

University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Raymond, Kenneth, Pluth, Michael D, Bergman, Robert G, and Raymond, Kenneth N. Chapter 8: Selective Stoichiometric and Catalytic Reactivity in the Confines of a Chiral Supramolecular Assembly. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Raymond, Kenneth, Pluth, Michael D, Bergman, Robert G, & Raymond, Kenneth N. Chapter 8: Selective Stoichiometric and Catalytic Reactivity in the Confines of a Chiral Supramolecular Assembly. United States.
University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Raymond, Kenneth, Pluth, Michael D, Bergman, Robert G, and Raymond, Kenneth N. Thu . "Chapter 8: Selective Stoichiometric and Catalytic Reactivity in the Confines of a Chiral Supramolecular Assembly". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/927154.
@article{osti_927154,
title = {Chapter 8: Selective Stoichiometric and Catalytic Reactivity in the Confines of a Chiral Supramolecular Assembly},
author = {University of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Raymond, Kenneth and Pluth, Michael D and Bergman, Robert G and Raymond, Kenneth N},
abstractNote = {Nature uses enzymes to activate otherwise unreactive compounds in remarkable ways. For example, DNases are capable of hydrolyzing phosphate diester bonds in DNA within seconds,[1-3]--a reaction with an estimated half-life of 200 million years without an enzyme.[4] The fundamental features of enzyme catalysis have been much discussed over the last sixty years in an effort to explain the dramatic rate increases and high selectivities of enzymes. As early as 1946, Linus Pauling suggested that enzymes must preferentially recognize and stabilize the transition state over the ground state of a substrate.[5] Despite the intense study of enzymatic selectivity and ability to catalyze chemical reactions, the entire nature of enzyme-based catalysis is still poorly understood. For example, Houk and co-workers recently reported a survey of binding affinities in a wide variety of enzyme-ligand, enzyme-transition-state, and synthetic host-guest complexes and found that the average binding affinities were insufficient to generate many of the rate accelerations observed in biological systems.[6] Therefore, transition-state stabilization cannot be the sole contributor to the high reactivity and selectivity of enzymes, but rather, other forces must contribute to the activation of substrate molecules. Inspired by the efficiency and selectivity of Nature, synthetic chemists have admired the ability of enzymes to activate otherwise unreactive molecules in the confines of an active site. Although much less complex than the evolved active sites of enzymes, synthetic host molecules have been developed that can carry out complex reactions with their cavities. While progress has been made toward highly efficient and selective reactivity inside of synthetic hosts, the lofty goal of duplicating enzymes specificity remains.[7-9] Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Pedersen, and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry has evolved well beyond the crown ethers and cryptands originally studied.[10-12] Despite the increased complexity of synthetic host molecules, most assembly conditions utilize self-assembly to form complex highly-symmetric structures from relatively simple subunits. For supramolecular assemblies able to encapsulate guest molecules, the chemical environment in each assembly--defined by the size, shape, charge, and functional group availability--greatly influences the guest-binding characteristics.[6, 13-17]},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/927154}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2007},
month = {9}
}

Book:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this book.

Save / Share: