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Title: Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs) for RF technologies.

Abstract

Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs), capacitively-coupled radio frequency (RF) MEMS switches incorporating dissipative dielectrics, new processing technologies for tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films, and scientific understanding of dissipation mechanisms in small mechanical structures were developed in this project. NEMOs are defined as mechanical oscillators with critical dimensions of 50 nm or less and resonance frequencies approaching 1 GHz. Target applications for these devices include simple, inexpensive clocks in electrical circuits, passive RF electrical filters, or platforms for sensor arrays. Ta-C NEMO arrays were used to demonstrate a novel optomechanical structure that shows remarkable sensitivity to small displacements (better than 160 fm/Hz {sup 1/2}) and suitability as an extremely sensitive accelerometer. The RF MEMS capacitively-coupled switches used ta-C as a dissipative dielectric. The devices showed a unipolar switching response to a unipolar stimulus, indicating the absence of significant dielectric charging, which has historically been the major reliability issue with these switches. This technology is promising for the development of reliable, low-power RF switches. An excimer laser annealing process was developed that permits full in-plane stress relaxation in ta-C films in air under ambient conditions, permitting the application of stress-reduced ta-C films in areas where low thermal budget is required, e.g. MEMS integration withmore » pre-existing CMOS electronics. Studies of mechanical dissipation in micro- and nano-scale ta-C mechanical oscillators at room temperature revealed that mechanical losses are limited by dissipation associated with mechanical relaxation in a broad spectrum of defects with activation energies for mechanical relaxation ranging from 0.35 eV to over 0.55 eV. This work has established a foundation for the creation of devices based on nanomechanical structures, and outstanding critical research areas that need to be addressed for the successful application of these technologies have been identified.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL
  2. Cedarville University, Cedarville, OH
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
920822
Report Number(s):
SAND2004-6185
TRN: US200803%%117
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANNEALING; CARBON; DEFECTS; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; DIMENSIONS; EXCIMER LASERS; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; OSCILLATORS; RELAXATION; RELIABILITY; RESONANCE; SENSITIVITY; STRESS RELAXATION; SWITCHES; TARGETS; Electromechanical devices.; Nanotechnology.; Radio frequency oscillators-Design and construction.; Oscillators-Design and construction.

Citation Formats

Wendt, Joel Robert, Czaplewski, David A, Gibson, John Murray, Webster, James R, Carton, Andrew James, Keeler, Bianca Elizabeth Nelson, Carr, Dustin Wade, Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas, Tallant, David Robert, Boyce, Brad Lee, Sullivan, John Patrick, Dyck, Christopher William, and Chen, Xidong. Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs) for RF technologies.. United States: N. p., 2004. Web. doi:10.2172/920822.
Wendt, Joel Robert, Czaplewski, David A, Gibson, John Murray, Webster, James R, Carton, Andrew James, Keeler, Bianca Elizabeth Nelson, Carr, Dustin Wade, Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas, Tallant, David Robert, Boyce, Brad Lee, Sullivan, John Patrick, Dyck, Christopher William, & Chen, Xidong. Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs) for RF technologies.. United States. doi:10.2172/920822.
Wendt, Joel Robert, Czaplewski, David A, Gibson, John Murray, Webster, James R, Carton, Andrew James, Keeler, Bianca Elizabeth Nelson, Carr, Dustin Wade, Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas, Tallant, David Robert, Boyce, Brad Lee, Sullivan, John Patrick, Dyck, Christopher William, and Chen, Xidong. Wed . "Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs) for RF technologies.". United States. doi:10.2172/920822. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/920822.
@article{osti_920822,
title = {Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs) for RF technologies.},
author = {Wendt, Joel Robert and Czaplewski, David A and Gibson, John Murray and Webster, James R and Carton, Andrew James and Keeler, Bianca Elizabeth Nelson and Carr, Dustin Wade and Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas and Tallant, David Robert and Boyce, Brad Lee and Sullivan, John Patrick and Dyck, Christopher William and Chen, Xidong},
abstractNote = {Nano-electromechanical oscillators (NEMOs), capacitively-coupled radio frequency (RF) MEMS switches incorporating dissipative dielectrics, new processing technologies for tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films, and scientific understanding of dissipation mechanisms in small mechanical structures were developed in this project. NEMOs are defined as mechanical oscillators with critical dimensions of 50 nm or less and resonance frequencies approaching 1 GHz. Target applications for these devices include simple, inexpensive clocks in electrical circuits, passive RF electrical filters, or platforms for sensor arrays. Ta-C NEMO arrays were used to demonstrate a novel optomechanical structure that shows remarkable sensitivity to small displacements (better than 160 fm/Hz {sup 1/2}) and suitability as an extremely sensitive accelerometer. The RF MEMS capacitively-coupled switches used ta-C as a dissipative dielectric. The devices showed a unipolar switching response to a unipolar stimulus, indicating the absence of significant dielectric charging, which has historically been the major reliability issue with these switches. This technology is promising for the development of reliable, low-power RF switches. An excimer laser annealing process was developed that permits full in-plane stress relaxation in ta-C films in air under ambient conditions, permitting the application of stress-reduced ta-C films in areas where low thermal budget is required, e.g. MEMS integration with pre-existing CMOS electronics. Studies of mechanical dissipation in micro- and nano-scale ta-C mechanical oscillators at room temperature revealed that mechanical losses are limited by dissipation associated with mechanical relaxation in a broad spectrum of defects with activation energies for mechanical relaxation ranging from 0.35 eV to over 0.55 eV. This work has established a foundation for the creation of devices based on nanomechanical structures, and outstanding critical research areas that need to be addressed for the successful application of these technologies have been identified.},
doi = {10.2172/920822},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2004},
month = {12}
}

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