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Title: Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.

Abstract

An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack, corrosion, erosion and other flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging civil and military infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair and inspection methods. As a result of Homeland Security issues and these aging infrastructure concerns, increased attention has been focused on the rapid repair and preemptive reinforcement of structures such as buildings and bridges. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program established the viability of using bonded composite patches to repair metallic structures. High modulus fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material may be used in lieu of mechanically fastened metallic patches or welds to reinforce or repair damaged structures. Their use produces a wide array of engineering and economic advantages. Current techniques for strengthening steel structures have several drawbacks including requiring heavy equipment for installation, poor fatigue performance, and the need for ongoing maintenance due to continued corrosion attack or crack growth. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are currently no rehabilitation options. Applications include such diversemore » structures as: buildings, bridges, railroad cars, trucks and other heavy machinery, steel power and communication towers, pipelines, factories, mining equipment, ships, tanks and other military vehicles. This LDRD also proved the concept of a living infrastructure by developing custom sensors and self-healing chemistry and linking this technology with the application of advanced composite materials. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems and mountable, miniature sensors were designed to continuously or periodically assess structural integrity. Such systems are able to detect incipient damage before catastrophic failure occurs. The ease of monitoring an entire network of distributed sensors means that structural health assessments can occur more often, allowing operators to be even more vigilant with respect to flaw onset. In addition, the realization of smart structures, through the use of in-situ sensors, allows condition-based maintenance to be substituted for conventional time-based maintenance practices. The sensitivity and reliability of a series of sensor systems was quantified in laboratory and real-world environments. Finally, self healing methods for composite materials were evolved--using resin modules that are released in response to the onset of delaminations--so that these components can provide a living infrastructure with minimal need for human intervention. This program consisted of four related research elements: (1) design, installation, and performance assessment of composite repairs, (2) in-situ sensors for real-time health monitoring, (3) self healing of in-service damage in a repair, and (4) numerical modeling. Deployment of FRP materials and bonded joints requires proper design, suitable surface preparation methods, and adequate surveillance to ensure structural integrity. By encompassing all 'cradle-to-grave' tasks --including design, analysis, installation, durability, flaw containment, and inspection--this program is designed to firmly establish the capabilities of composite doubler repairs and introduce technology to incorporate self-monitoring and self-healing (living structures) methodologies. A proof-of-concept repair was completed on a steel highway bridge in order to demonstrate the potential of composite doubler technology for critical infrastructure use.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;
  1. University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Laboratories
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
920441
Report Number(s):
SAND2007-5547
TRN: US200818%%84
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AGING; BY-PRODUCTS; CHEMISTRY; COMPOSITE MATERIALS; CONTAINMENT; CORROSION; CRACK PROPAGATION; DEFECTS; HEALING; MACHINERY; MAINTENANCE; MINING EQUIPMENT; POLYMERS; REPAIR; RESINS; STEELS; TANKS; VIABILITY; Aging tests (Materials); Composite materials.; Steel-Corrosion.; Military planning; United States.; Materials-Aging.

Citation Formats

Roach, Dennis Patrick, Delong, Waylon Anthony, White, Scott, Yepez, Esteban, Rackow, Kirk A, and Reedy, Earl David, Jr. Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.2172/920441.
Roach, Dennis Patrick, Delong, Waylon Anthony, White, Scott, Yepez, Esteban, Rackow, Kirk A, & Reedy, Earl David, Jr. Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/920441
Roach, Dennis Patrick, Delong, Waylon Anthony, White, Scott, Yepez, Esteban, Rackow, Kirk A, and Reedy, Earl David, Jr. Sat . "Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/920441. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/920441.
@article{osti_920441,
title = {Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.},
author = {Roach, Dennis Patrick and Delong, Waylon Anthony and White, Scott and Yepez, Esteban and Rackow, Kirk A and Reedy, Earl David, Jr.},
abstractNote = {An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack, corrosion, erosion and other flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging civil and military infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair and inspection methods. As a result of Homeland Security issues and these aging infrastructure concerns, increased attention has been focused on the rapid repair and preemptive reinforcement of structures such as buildings and bridges. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program established the viability of using bonded composite patches to repair metallic structures. High modulus fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material may be used in lieu of mechanically fastened metallic patches or welds to reinforce or repair damaged structures. Their use produces a wide array of engineering and economic advantages. Current techniques for strengthening steel structures have several drawbacks including requiring heavy equipment for installation, poor fatigue performance, and the need for ongoing maintenance due to continued corrosion attack or crack growth. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are currently no rehabilitation options. Applications include such diverse structures as: buildings, bridges, railroad cars, trucks and other heavy machinery, steel power and communication towers, pipelines, factories, mining equipment, ships, tanks and other military vehicles. This LDRD also proved the concept of a living infrastructure by developing custom sensors and self-healing chemistry and linking this technology with the application of advanced composite materials. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems and mountable, miniature sensors were designed to continuously or periodically assess structural integrity. Such systems are able to detect incipient damage before catastrophic failure occurs. The ease of monitoring an entire network of distributed sensors means that structural health assessments can occur more often, allowing operators to be even more vigilant with respect to flaw onset. In addition, the realization of smart structures, through the use of in-situ sensors, allows condition-based maintenance to be substituted for conventional time-based maintenance practices. The sensitivity and reliability of a series of sensor systems was quantified in laboratory and real-world environments. Finally, self healing methods for composite materials were evolved--using resin modules that are released in response to the onset of delaminations--so that these components can provide a living infrastructure with minimal need for human intervention. This program consisted of four related research elements: (1) design, installation, and performance assessment of composite repairs, (2) in-situ sensors for real-time health monitoring, (3) self healing of in-service damage in a repair, and (4) numerical modeling. Deployment of FRP materials and bonded joints requires proper design, suitable surface preparation methods, and adequate surveillance to ensure structural integrity. By encompassing all 'cradle-to-grave' tasks --including design, analysis, installation, durability, flaw containment, and inspection--this program is designed to firmly establish the capabilities of composite doubler repairs and introduce technology to incorporate self-monitoring and self-healing (living structures) methodologies. A proof-of-concept repair was completed on a steel highway bridge in order to demonstrate the potential of composite doubler technology for critical infrastructure use.},
doi = {10.2172/920441},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/920441}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2007},
month = {9}
}