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Title: Multisite Promiscuity in the Processing of Endogenous Substrates By Human Carboxylesterase 1

Abstract

Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a drug and endobiotic-processing serine hydrolase that exhibits relatively broad substrate specificity. It has been implicated in a variety of endogenous cholesterol metabolism pathways including the following apparently disparate reactions: cholesterol ester hydrolysis (CEH), fatty acyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis (FACoAH), acyl-Coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransfer (ACAT), and fatty acyl ethyl ester synthesis (FAEES). The structural basis for the ability of hCE1 to perform these catalytic actions involving large substrates and products has remained unclear. Here we present four crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complexes with the following endogenous substrates or substrate analogues: Coenzyme A, the fatty acid palmitate, and the bile acids cholate and taurocholate. While the active site of hCE1 was known to be promiscuous and capable of interacting with a variety of chemically distinct ligands, these structures reveal that the enzyme contains two additional ligand-binding sites and that each site also exhibits relatively non-specific ligand-binding properties. Using this multisite promiscuity, hCE1 appears structurally capable of assembling several catalytic events depending, apparently, on the physiological state of the cellular environment. These results expand our understanding of enzyme promiscuity and indicate that, in the case of hCE1, multiple non-specific sites are employed to perform distinctmore » catalytic actions.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
897737
Report Number(s):
SLAC-REPRINT-2006-180
TRN: US200705%%315
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J.Mol.Biol.363:201, 2006
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BILE ACIDS; CARBOXYLESTERASES; CARBOXYLIC ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL; COENZYMES; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; ENZYMES; ESTERS; GLYCOPROTEINS; HYDROLASES; HYDROLYSIS; METABOLISM; SERINE; SPECIFICITY; SUBSTRATES; SYNTHESIS; Other,OTHER

Citation Formats

Bencharit, S., Edwards, C.C., Morton, C.L., Howard-Williams, E.L., Kuhn, P., Potter, P.M., Redinbo, M.R., and /North Carolina U. /St. Jude Children's Hosp., Memphis /SLAC, SSRL. Multisite Promiscuity in the Processing of Endogenous Substrates By Human Carboxylesterase 1. United States: N. p., 2007. Web.
Bencharit, S., Edwards, C.C., Morton, C.L., Howard-Williams, E.L., Kuhn, P., Potter, P.M., Redinbo, M.R., & /North Carolina U. /St. Jude Children's Hosp., Memphis /SLAC, SSRL. Multisite Promiscuity in the Processing of Endogenous Substrates By Human Carboxylesterase 1. United States.
Bencharit, S., Edwards, C.C., Morton, C.L., Howard-Williams, E.L., Kuhn, P., Potter, P.M., Redinbo, M.R., and /North Carolina U. /St. Jude Children's Hosp., Memphis /SLAC, SSRL. Tue . "Multisite Promiscuity in the Processing of Endogenous Substrates By Human Carboxylesterase 1". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_897737,
title = {Multisite Promiscuity in the Processing of Endogenous Substrates By Human Carboxylesterase 1},
author = {Bencharit, S. and Edwards, C.C. and Morton, C.L. and Howard-Williams, E.L. and Kuhn, P. and Potter, P.M. and Redinbo, M.R. and /North Carolina U. /St. Jude Children's Hosp., Memphis /SLAC, SSRL},
abstractNote = {Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a drug and endobiotic-processing serine hydrolase that exhibits relatively broad substrate specificity. It has been implicated in a variety of endogenous cholesterol metabolism pathways including the following apparently disparate reactions: cholesterol ester hydrolysis (CEH), fatty acyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis (FACoAH), acyl-Coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransfer (ACAT), and fatty acyl ethyl ester synthesis (FAEES). The structural basis for the ability of hCE1 to perform these catalytic actions involving large substrates and products has remained unclear. Here we present four crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complexes with the following endogenous substrates or substrate analogues: Coenzyme A, the fatty acid palmitate, and the bile acids cholate and taurocholate. While the active site of hCE1 was known to be promiscuous and capable of interacting with a variety of chemically distinct ligands, these structures reveal that the enzyme contains two additional ligand-binding sites and that each site also exhibits relatively non-specific ligand-binding properties. Using this multisite promiscuity, hCE1 appears structurally capable of assembling several catalytic events depending, apparently, on the physiological state of the cellular environment. These results expand our understanding of enzyme promiscuity and indicate that, in the case of hCE1, multiple non-specific sites are employed to perform distinct catalytic actions.},
doi = {},
journal = {J.Mol.Biol.363:201, 2006},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 16 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Tue Jan 16 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) exhibits broad substrate specificity and is involved in xenobiotic processing and endobiotic metabolism. We present and analyze crystal structures of hCE1 in complexes with the cholesterol-lowering drug mevastatin, the breast cancer drug tamoxifen, the fatty acyl ethyl ester (FAEE) analogue ethyl acetate, and the novel hCE1 inhibitor benzil. We find that mevastatin does not appear to be a substrate for hCE1, and instead acts as a partially non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. Similarly, we show that tamoxifen is a low micromolar, partially non-competitive inhibitor of hCE1. Further, we describe the structural basis for the inhibition ofmore » hCE1 by the nanomolar-affinity dione benzil, which acts by forming both covalent and non-covalent complexes with the enzyme. Our results provide detailed insights into the catalytic and non-catalytic processing of small molecules by hCE1, and suggest that the efficacy of clinical drugs may be modulated by targeted hCE1 inhibitors.« less
  • Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents are potent toxins that inhibit cholinesterases and produce a rapid and lethal cholinergic crisis. Development of protein-based therapeutics is being pursued with the goal of preventing nerve agent toxicity and protecting against the long-term side effects of these agents. The drug-metabolizing enzyme human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a candidate protein-based therapeutic because of its similarity in structure and function to the cholinesterase targets of nerve agent poisoning. However, the ability of wild-type hCE1 to process the G-type nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin has not been determined. We report the crystal structure of hCE1 in complex withmore » the nerve agent cyclosarin. We further use stereoselective nerve agent analogs to establish that hCE1 exhibits a 1700- and 2900-fold preference for the P{sub R} enantiomers of analogs of soman and cyclosarin, respectively, and a 5-fold preference for the P{sub S} isomer of a sarin analog. Finally, we show that for enzyme inhibited by racemic mixtures of bona fide nerve agents, hCE1 spontaneously reactivates in the presence of sarin but not soman or cyclosarin. The addition of the neutral oxime 2,3-butanedione monoxime increases the rate of reactivation of hCE1 from sarin inhibition by more than 60-fold but has no effect on reactivation with the other agents examined. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hCE1 is only reactivated after inhibition with the more toxic P{sub S} isomer of sarin. These results provide important insights toward the long-term goal of designing novel forms of hCE1 to act as protein-based therapeutics for nerve agent detoxification.« less
  • Oxons are the bioactivated metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides formed via cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-catalyzed desulfuration of the parent compound. Oxons react covalently with the active site serine residue of serine hydrolases, thereby inactivating the enzyme. A number of serine hydrolases other than acetylcholinesterase, the canonical target of oxons, have been reported to react with and be inhibited by oxons. These off-target serine hydrolases include carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), CES2, and monoacylglycerol lipase. Carboxylesterases (CES, EC 3.1.1.1) metabolize a number of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds containing ester, amide, and thioester bonds and are important in the metabolism of many pharmaceuticals. Monoglyceride lipase (MGL,more » EC 3.1.1.23) hydrolyzes monoglycerides including the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The physiological consequences and toxicity related to the inhibition of off-target serine hydrolases by oxons due to chronic, low level environmental exposures are poorly understood. Here, we determined the potency of inhibition (IC{sub 50} values; 15 min preincubation, enzyme and inhibitor) of recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon. The order of potency for these three oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon, although the difference in potency for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 did not reach statistical significance. We also determined the bimolecular rate constants (k{sub inact}/K{sub I}) for the covalent reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon with CES1 and CES2. Consistent with the results for the IC{sub 50} values, the order of reactivity for each of the three oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon with MGL was also determined and was less than the values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 respectively. Together, the results define the kinetics of inhibition of three important hydrolytic enzymes by activated metabolites of widely used agrochemicals. -- Highlights: ► IC{sub 50} values and bimolecular rate constants (k{sub inact}/K{sub I}) of human recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL proteins and chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon were determined. ► The IC{sub 50} values for the oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL followed the rank order: chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. ► The order of reactivity for the oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. ► Chlorpyrifos oxon was less reactive with MGL than with either CES1 or CES2.« less
  • Rat liver homogenate or cell fractions deacylate 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in vitro mainly by conversion to phorbol 13-acetate. The highest specific activity is located in the microsomal fraction. The deacylation is inhibited by bis-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate, a selective inhibitor of nonspecific carboxylesterases. Only two of five purified esterases from rat liver endoplasmic reticulum deacylate TPA. These two esterases have formerly been characterized as acylcarnitine hydrolases and the more active one is also a potent diacylglycerol lipase. Its TPA-hydrolyzing activity is inhibited by other substrates like 1-naphthylacetate, lauroylcarnitine, or dioleoyl glycerol. The results support the view that phorbol esters act likemore » structural analogs of diacylglycerols, not only with respect to their activating effect on protein kinase C, but also as substrates for the same lipases.« less