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Title: DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Chromosomal Rearrangements, and GenomicInstability

Abstract

DNA double-strand breaks can lead to chromosomalrearrangements at the first mitosis after exposure to the DNAstrand-breaking agent. The evidence suggests a number of differentpathways for DNA double-strand break rejoining in mammalian cells, but itis unclear what factors determine the fate of the induced break andwhether or not it will lead to chromosomal rearrangement. If a cell doessurvive and proliferate after DNA cleavage, delayed chromosomalinstability can be observedin the clonal descendants of the exposedcell. Most, but not all DNA double-strand breaking agents are effectiveat inducing this delayed chromosomal instability. In this paper, wereview the evidence for the role of the DNA double-strand break indirectly induced and delayed chromosomal rearrangements. Copyright 1998Elsevier Science B.V.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory, Berkeley, CA (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Director, Office of Energy Research
OSTI Identifier:
895509
Report Number(s):
LBNL-41529
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Mutation Research; Journal Volume: 404; Journal Issue: 1-2; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 08/03/1998
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Morgan, W.F., Corcoran, J., Hartmann, A., Kaplan, M.I., Limoli,C.L., and Ponnaiya, B. DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Chromosomal Rearrangements, and GenomicInstability. United States: N. p., 1998. Web.
Morgan, W.F., Corcoran, J., Hartmann, A., Kaplan, M.I., Limoli,C.L., & Ponnaiya, B. DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Chromosomal Rearrangements, and GenomicInstability. United States.
Morgan, W.F., Corcoran, J., Hartmann, A., Kaplan, M.I., Limoli,C.L., and Ponnaiya, B. 1998. "DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Chromosomal Rearrangements, and GenomicInstability". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_895509,
title = {DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Chromosomal Rearrangements, and GenomicInstability},
author = {Morgan, W.F. and Corcoran, J. and Hartmann, A. and Kaplan, M.I. and Limoli,C.L. and Ponnaiya, B.},
abstractNote = {DNA double-strand breaks can lead to chromosomalrearrangements at the first mitosis after exposure to the DNAstrand-breaking agent. The evidence suggests a number of differentpathways for DNA double-strand break rejoining in mammalian cells, but itis unclear what factors determine the fate of the induced break andwhether or not it will lead to chromosomal rearrangement. If a cell doessurvive and proliferate after DNA cleavage, delayed chromosomalinstability can be observedin the clonal descendants of the exposedcell. Most, but not all DNA double-strand breaking agents are effectiveat inducing this delayed chromosomal instability. In this paper, wereview the evidence for the role of the DNA double-strand break indirectly induced and delayed chromosomal rearrangements. Copyright 1998Elsevier Science B.V.},
doi = {},
journal = {Mutation Research},
number = 1-2,
volume = 404,
place = {United States},
year = 1998,
month = 3
}
  • Ionizing radiation causes the formation of strand breaks in cellular DNA, as well as other types of lesions in the chromatin of cells. Some of the earliest investigations of the molecular basis of radiation-induced damage and the implications of enzymatic repair were done by Dr. H. S. Kaplan. Because it is difficult to assay for DNA lesions in the large mammalian genome, the authors have developed a method of assaying for DNA double-strand breaks in the supercoiled nucleosome-complexed Simian virus 40 (SV40) genome, irradiated intracellularly. In this communication they present their measurements of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to single-strandmore » breaks (SSBs) ratio obtained from the intracellularly irradiated SV40 genome. After cobalt gamma ray and X ray irradiations, this ratio is about 1/10. Their methods and results are compared with pertinent data in the literature. If the DSBs/SSBs ratio of 1/10 for cellular chromatin is correct, a substantial number of DNA double-strand breaks are formed in a mammalian cell after moderate doses (1 Gy) of radiation. The implications of different types of DNA double-strand breaks are discussed.« less
  • A number of investigations have suggested that the widely observed oxygen enhancement of radiation-induced cell killing or intracellular DNA damage requires the presence of glutathione (GSH) or other thiols. We have adapted an in vitro model system to investigate the effects of GSH on radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), lesions felt to be critical to cell death. Superhelical SV40 DNA, 25 {mu}g/ml, was irradiated in air or nitrogen in the presence of 0-20 mM GSH and single-strand breaks (SSBs) and DSBs were measured using neutral gel electrophoresis/ethidium bromide fluorescence. Control experiments demonstrated that a substantial concentration of free SH wasmore » still present after irradiation. Dose-response curves for SSBs and DSBs in air or nitrogen were predominantly linear at all GSH concentrations tested from 0-20 mM, except for 20 mM GSH in nitrogen, indicating that both SSBs and DSBs in nitrogen at 20 mM GSH, suggesting additional damage, rather than the expected additional protection. The possible mechanism for a damaging effect from GSH is discussed. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OERs) were calculated from the slopes of dose-response curves. The OERs for SSBs did not differ substantially from those for DSBs at the same [GSH], contrary to the observations of Prise. The OERs for SSBs and DSBs peaked at 6.5 and 8, respectively, at 5 mM GSH. These similarities suggest that the much lower OERs (2.5-3.0) generally reported for radiation killing of cells, which also typically contain about 5 mM GSH, cannot be accounted for by differences in OER between lethal lesions, represented by DSBs, and nonlethal lesions, represented by SSBs. In view of the present results, another possible explanation, that intracellular compounds other than reduced thiols are important in the chemical modification of the response of DNA to radiation, seems to be much more likely. 41 refs., 5 figs.« less
  • This work describes a neutral and alkaline elution method for measuring DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and DNA-DNA crosslinks in rat testicular germ cells after treatments in vivo or in vitro with both chemical mutagens and gamma-irradiation. The methods depend upon the isolation of testicular germ cells by collagenase and trypsin digestion, followed by filtration and centrifugation. {sup 137}Cs irradiation induced both DNA SSBs and DSBs in germ cells held on ice in vitro. Irradiation of the whole animal indicated that both types of DNA breaks are induced in vivo and can be repaired. A number ofmore » germ cell mutagens induced either DNA SSBs, DSBs, or cross-links after in vivo and in vitro dosing. These chemicals included methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea, dibromochlorpropane, ethylene dibromide, triethylene melamine, and mitomycin C. These results suggest that the blood-testes barrier is relatively ineffective for these mutagens, which may explain in part their in vivo mutagenic potency. This assay should be a useful screen for detecting chemical attack upon male germ-cell DNA and thus, it should help in the assessment of the mutagenic risk of chemicals. In addition, this approach can be used to study the processes of SSB, DSB, and crosslink repair in DNA of male germ cells, either from all stages or specific stages of development.« less
  • The production and rejoining of single-strand breaks (SSB) in chromosomal DNA and extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were investigated after sublethal doses of ..gamma.. radiation to exponentially growing Tetrahymena. Hydrogen-3-labeled total nuclear DNA isolated from either control or irradiated cells was heat denatured and electrophoresed in agarose gels containing formaldehyde. Ribosomal DNA was identified by hybridization to (/sup 32/P)rRNA after transferring the DNA from the gels to nitrocellulose strips. It was found that (a) approximately 0.68 SSB is produced in each strand of rDNA exposed to 40 krad; (b) greater than 80% of SSB were rejoined within the first 20 minmore » after irradiation in both chromosomal and rDNA; and (c) the rejoining process in both chromosomal and rDNA proceeded in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis, RNA synthesis, or oxidative metabolism. While the majority of SSB induced by 40 krad is rejoined within 20 min after irradiation, the resumption of rRNA synthesis does not occur until 30 min thereafter; it is concluded that the restoration of the normal size of the rDNA template is probably necessary but not sufficient for the resumption of rRNA synthesis.« less
  • The aim of this work was to measure simultaneously and in a quantitative manner double-strand breaks (DSBs), interphase chromosome breaks and cell lethality either immediately after irradiation, or at various times thereafter (up to 24 h), in cells of three nontransformed human fibroblast cell lines of widely different intrinsic radiosensitivity. We wished to assess initial damage, repair kinetics and residual damage at the DNA and the chromosome level, and to correlate these parameters with cell killings. We employed HF19 cells, a normal fibroblast cell line, AT2 cells, a radiosensitive cell line from a patient suffering from ataxia telangiectasia (AT), andmore » 180BR cells, a radiosensitive cell line from a patient with no clinical symptoms of AT. AT2 and 180BR cells, in addition to being radiosensitive, also display a reduced ability to repair potentially lethal damage compared to HF19 cells. The yield of DSBs, as measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, is similar in all three cell lines (slopes correspond to 1.6-1.7% Gy{sup -1} of DNA-associated radioactivity released from the gel well into the lane). In contrast, residual DSBs measured 24 h after irradiation are almost zero for HF19 cells (0.1% confidence interval=0-1.4%), but are 12.5% ({plus_minus}2.3%) and 43.8% ({plus_minus}1.2%) of those measured immediately after irradiation in HF19, AT2 and 180BR cells, respectively. Neither the initial yield of DSBs nor that of excess interphase chromosomes breaks can explain the differences in radiosensitivity between the three cell lines; however, there is a correlation between residual DSBs, rate of DSB rejoining at 24 h, residual interphase chromosome breaks on the one hand and cell survival on the other hand. 74 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.« less