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Title: Performance Optimization of Self-Piercing Rivets through Analytical Rivet Strength Estimation

Abstract

This paper presents the authors' work on strength optimization and failure mode prediction of self-piercing rivets (SPR) for automotive applications. The limit load-based strength estimator is used to estimate the static strength of an SPR under cross tension loading configuration. Failure modes associated with the estimated failure strength are also predicted. Experimental strength and failure mode observations are used to validate the model. It is shown that the strength of an SPR joint depends on the material and gage combinations, rivet design, die design and riveting direction. The rivet strength estimator is then used to optimize the rivet strength by comparing the measured rivet strength and failure mode with the predicted ones. Two illustrative examples are used in which rivet strength is optimized by changing rivet design and riveting direction from the original manufacturing parameters.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
878674
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-45668
VT0502010; TRN: US200611%%270
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Manufacturing Processes; Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; DESIGN; MANUFACTURING; PERFORMANCE; FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS; FASTENERS; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; Self-piercing rivets; rivet strength; analytical rivet strength estimation; rivet strength optimization; dissimilar materials joints

Citation Formats

Sun, Xin, and Khaleel, Mohammad A. Performance Optimization of Self-Piercing Rivets through Analytical Rivet Strength Estimation. United States: N. p., 2005. Web. doi:10.1016/S1526-6125(05)70085-2.
Sun, Xin, & Khaleel, Mohammad A. Performance Optimization of Self-Piercing Rivets through Analytical Rivet Strength Estimation. United States. doi:10.1016/S1526-6125(05)70085-2.
Sun, Xin, and Khaleel, Mohammad A. 2005. "Performance Optimization of Self-Piercing Rivets through Analytical Rivet Strength Estimation". United States. doi:10.1016/S1526-6125(05)70085-2.
@article{osti_878674,
title = {Performance Optimization of Self-Piercing Rivets through Analytical Rivet Strength Estimation},
author = {Sun, Xin and Khaleel, Mohammad A.},
abstractNote = {This paper presents the authors' work on strength optimization and failure mode prediction of self-piercing rivets (SPR) for automotive applications. The limit load-based strength estimator is used to estimate the static strength of an SPR under cross tension loading configuration. Failure modes associated with the estimated failure strength are also predicted. Experimental strength and failure mode observations are used to validate the model. It is shown that the strength of an SPR joint depends on the material and gage combinations, rivet design, die design and riveting direction. The rivet strength estimator is then used to optimize the rivet strength by comparing the measured rivet strength and failure mode with the predicted ones. Two illustrative examples are used in which rivet strength is optimized by changing rivet design and riveting direction from the original manufacturing parameters.},
doi = {10.1016/S1526-6125(05)70085-2},
journal = {Journal of Manufacturing Processes},
number = 1,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = 2005,
month = 8
}
  • This paper summarizes the authors' work on strength and failure mode estimation of self-piercing rivets (SPR) for automotive applications. First, the static cross tension strength of an SPR joint is estimated using a lower bound limit load based strength estimator. Failure mode associated with the predicted failure strength can also be identified. It is shown that the cross tension strength of an SPR joint depends on the material and gage combinations, rivet design, die design and riveting direction. The analytical rivet strength estimator is then validated by experimental rivet strength measurements and failure mode observations from nine SPR joint populationsmore » with various material and gage combinations. Next, the estimator is used to optimize rivet strength. Two illustrative examples are presented in which rivet strength is improved by changing rivet length and riveting direction from the original manufacturing parameters.« less
  • This paper summarizes the dynamic joint strength evaluation procedures and the measured dynamic strength data for thirteen joint populations of self-piercing rivets (SPR) and resistance spot welds (RSW) joining similar and dissimilar metals. A state-of-the-art review of the current practice for conducting dynamic tensile/compressive strength tests in different strain rate regimes is first presented, and the generic issues associated with dynamic strength test are addressed. Then, the joint strength testing procedures and fixture designs used in the current study are described, and the typical load versus displacement curves under different loading configurations are presented. Uniqueness of the current data comparedmore » with data in the open literature is discussed. The experimental results for all the joint populations indicate that joint strength increases with increasing loading rate. However, the strength increase from 4.47m/s (10mph) to 8.94m/s (20mph) is not as significant as the strength increase from static to 4.47m/s. It is also found that with increasing loading velocity, displacement to failure decreases for all the joint samples. Therefore, “brittleness” of the joint sample increases with impact velocity. Detailed static and dynamic strength data and the associated energy absorption levels for all the samples in the thirteen joint populations are also included.« less
  • This paper summarizes the fatigue test results of self-piercing rivet (SPR) joints between similar and dissimilar sheet metals. The influences of material grades, material thickness, piercing direction and the use of structural adhesive on the rivet samples’ fatigue behaviors were investigated. Fatigue test results indicate that SPR joints have superior fatigue strength than resistance spot weld (RSW) joints for the same material combinations. The application of structure adhesive also significantly enhances the fatigue strength of the joint samples; this is particularly true for the lap shear loading configuration. In addition, different piercing directions for SPR joints have a noticeable effectmore » on the static and fatigue strength of the joints. The joint fatigue results presented in this paper can offer design engineers with the durability data for SPR joints with these material combinations. Moreover, it will provide manufacturing engineers with some insights on the effects of different manufacturing parameters on the strength and durability of these joints.« less
  • In the present paper the influence of a higher setting velocity in the joining process of self piercing solid-rivets is shown. In the conventional process tool velocities well below 1 m/s are common. The present research results show the potential of increasing them in the range of about 5 m/s. The results are especially relevant for joining high-strength steels. These steel sheets often cause problems in the process of riveting mixed materials, e. g. aluminium-steel compound. The high strength of the steel sometimes leads to undesirable material flow in the joining process or unwanted burr development. These effects, which aremore » described in detail in the article, can be reduced significantly for the investigated cases by the use of higher tool velocities. Using a high speed camera and a load cell, a test setup based on a drop tower was realized. It was used to time the force signals and the motion profile of the high speed riveting process. The results of the force analysis show an oscillating force progression. Within a numerical research the principal effects influencing the results of the riveting process can be shown. It was found that the pulse-like force transmission between riveting machine and punch, results in various vibrations especially of long and thin tool parts. Hence the rivet penetrates the sheet metal with non-uniform velocities. As a result the early indentation of die into the lower sheet metal at the beginning of the process is reduced, so that the final process step provides a sufficient material flow into the circular rivet groove. A strain-rate dependent process model with elastic tool properties and consideration of inertia effects is presented.« less
  • This paper presents the coupon performance data of friction stir welded tailor welded blanks (TWBs) joined to a monolithic aluminum sheet by self-piercing rivets (SPRs). Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to characterize the joint strength and the total energy absorption capability of the TWB/monolithic joint assemblies. Cyclic fatigue tests were also conducted to characterize the fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of the jointed assemblies. It was found that the static and fatigue strength of the TWB/monolithic assembly was approximately 30 percent less in all loading configurations tested in comparison to a common monolithic sheet SPR assembly. The total energy absorbedmore » by the TWB/monolithic sheet assemblies was also found to be 30 percent less than the monolithic sheet assemblies in cross tension loading. In lap shear loading, the total energy absorbed was comparable.« less