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Title: SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE

Abstract

The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. Highmore » resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the dominant phase present for most metals (V, Ni, Zn, etc.). This allowed conclusive identification in the leaching residue of important secondary sulfide and oxide phases, including Ni sulfide, a toxic and carcinogenic phase observed in the leached PM{sub 2.5+} samples. Other significant secondary phases identified included V{sub 2}O{sub 4}, V sulfide, and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Kentucky (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
(US)
OSTI Identifier:
839089
DOE Contract Number:  
AC26-99BC15220
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 31 Jul 2003
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 02 PETROLEUM; DIESEL ENGINES; DIESEL FUELS; FLY ASH; LUBRICATING OILS; MOLECULAR STRUCTURE; PARTICULATES; PENTANE; PETROLEUM; PETROLEUM RESIDUES; REFINING; RESIDUAL FUELS; SPECTROSCOPY; US EPA; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Huffman, Gerald P, Huggins, Frank E, Shah, Naresh, Braun, Artur, Chen, Yuanzhi, Robertson, J David, Kyger, Joseph, Sarofim, Adel F, Pugmire, Ronald J, Meuzelaar, Henk L.C., and Lighty, JoAnn. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE. United States: N. p., 2003. Web. doi:10.2172/839089.
Huffman, Gerald P, Huggins, Frank E, Shah, Naresh, Braun, Artur, Chen, Yuanzhi, Robertson, J David, Kyger, Joseph, Sarofim, Adel F, Pugmire, Ronald J, Meuzelaar, Henk L.C., & Lighty, JoAnn. SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE. United States. doi:10.2172/839089.
Huffman, Gerald P, Huggins, Frank E, Shah, Naresh, Braun, Artur, Chen, Yuanzhi, Robertson, J David, Kyger, Joseph, Sarofim, Adel F, Pugmire, Ronald J, Meuzelaar, Henk L.C., and Lighty, JoAnn. Thu . "SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE". United States. doi:10.2172/839089. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/839089.
@article{osti_839089,
title = {SOURCE SIGNATURES OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PETROLEUM REFINING AND FUEL USE},
author = {Huffman, Gerald P and Huggins, Frank E and Shah, Naresh and Braun, Artur and Chen, Yuanzhi and Robertson, J David and Kyger, Joseph and Sarofim, Adel F and Pugmire, Ronald J and Meuzelaar, Henk L.C. and Lighty, JoAnn},
abstractNote = {The molecular structure and microstructure of a suite of fine particulate matter (PM) samples produced by the combustion of residual fuel oil and diesel fuel were investigated by an array of analytical techniques. Some of the more important results are summarized below. Diesel PM (DPM): A small diesel engine test facility was used to generate a suite of diesel PM samples from different fuels under engine load and idle conditions. C XANES, {sup 13}C NMR, XRD, and TGA were in accord that the samples produced under engine load conditions contained more graphitic material than those produced under idle conditions, which contained a larger amount of unburned diesel fuel and lubricating oil. The difference was enhanced by the addition of 5% of oxygenated compounds to the reference fuel. Scanning transmission x-ray micro-spectroscopy (STXM) was able to distinguish particulate regions rich in C=C bonds from regions rich in C-H bonds with a resolution of {approx}50 nm. The former are representative of more graphitic regions and the latter of regions rich in unburned fuel and oil. The dominant microstructure observed by SEM and TEM consisted of complex chain-like structures of PM globules {approx}20-100 nm in mean diameter, with a high fractal dimension. High resolution TEM revealed that the graphitic part of the diesel soot consisted of onion-like structures made up of graphene layers. Typically 3-10 graphene layers make up the ''onion rings'', with the layer spacing decreasing as the number of layers increases. ROFA PM: Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM has been analyzed by a new approach that combines XAFS spectroscopy with selective leaching procedures. ROFA PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 2.5+} produced in combustion facilities at the U.S. EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRML) were analyzed by XAFS before and after leaching with water, acid (1N HCl), and pentane. Both water and acid leaching removed most of the metal sulfates, which were the dominant phase present for most metals (V, Ni, Zn, etc.). This allowed conclusive identification in the leaching residue of important secondary sulfide and oxide phases, including Ni sulfide, a toxic and carcinogenic phase observed in the leached PM{sub 2.5+} samples. Other significant secondary phases identified included V{sub 2}O{sub 4}, V sulfide, and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.},
doi = {10.2172/839089},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2003},
month = {7}
}