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Title: Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies

Abstract

We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflectivemore » building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2. For residences heated with electricity, the savings ranged from 350 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2 for Pre-1980 stock and 190-600 kWh/1000ft2 for 1980+ stocks. In climates with less than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the electricity savings were not significantly higher than winter heating penalties. For gas-heated office buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1100-1500 kWh/1000ft2 and 360-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For electrically heated office buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 700-1400 kWh/1000ft2 and 100-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. Similarly, for gas-heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1300-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 370-750 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For electrically heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1200-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 250-750 kW h/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980 + stocks, respectively.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE. Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies; Environmental Protection Agency under Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (US)
OSTI Identifier:
816531
Report Number(s):
LBNL-47307
R&D Project: 80MD30; TRN: US200320%%621
DOE Contract Number:  
AC03-76SF00098
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 15 Mar 2003
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
03 NATURAL GAS; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; AIR; CLIMATES; CONSTRUCTION; ELECTRICITY; HEAT GAIN; HEATING; NATURAL GAS; OFFICE BUILDINGS; PAVEMENTS; PEAK LOAD; PLANTS; ROOFS; TREES; WEATHER; HEAT ISLAND RESIDENTAL BUILDINGS ENERGY SAVINGS ALBEDO

Citation Formats

Akbari, Hashem, and Konopacki, Steven J. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies. United States: N. p., 2003. Web. doi:10.2172/816531.
Akbari, Hashem, & Konopacki, Steven J. Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/816531
Akbari, Hashem, and Konopacki, Steven J. Sat . "Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/816531. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/816531.
@article{osti_816531,
title = {Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies},
author = {Akbari, Hashem and Konopacki, Steven J},
abstractNote = {We have developed summary tables (sorted by heating- and cooling-degree-days) to estimate the potential of Heat-Island Reduction (HIR) strategies (i.e., solar-reflective roofs, shade trees, reflective pavements, and urban vegetation) to reduce cooling-energy use in buildings. The tables provide estimates of savings for both direct effect (reducing heat gain through the building shell) and indirect effect (reducing the ambient air temperature). In this analysis, we considered three building types that offer the most savings potential : residences, offices, and retail stores. Each building type was characterized in detail by Pre-1980 (old) or 1980+ (new) construction vintage and with natural gas or electricity as heating fuel. We defined prototypical-building characteristics for each building type and simulated the effects of HIR strategies on building cooling and heating energy use and peak power demand using the DOE-2.1E model and weather data for about 240 locations in the U.S. A statistical analysis of previously completed simulations for five cities was used to estimate the indirect savings. Our simulations included the effect of (1) solar-reflective roofing material on building [direct effect], (2) placement of deciduous shade trees near south and west walls of building [direct effect], and (3) ambient cooling achieved by urban reforestation and reflective building surfaces and pavements [indirect effect]. Upon completion of estimating the direct and indirect energy savings for all the selected locations, we integrated the results in tables arranged by heating- and cooling-degree-days. We considered 15 bins for heating-degree-days, and 11 bins for cooling-degree-days. Energy use and savings are presented per 1000 ft2 of roof area. In residences heated with gas and in climates with greater than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the annual electricity savings in Pre-1980 stock ranged from 650 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2; for 1980+ stock savings ranged 300 to 600 kWh/1000 ft2. For residences heated with electricity, the savings ranged from 350 to 1300 kWh/1000ft2 for Pre-1980 stock and 190-600 kWh/1000ft2 for 1980+ stocks. In climates with less than 1000 cooling-degree-days, the electricity savings were not significantly higher than winter heating penalties. For gas-heated office buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1100-1500 kWh/1000ft2 and 360-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For electrically heated office buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 700-1400 kWh/1000ft2 and 100-700 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. Similarly, for gas-heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1300-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 370-750 kWh/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980+ stocks, respectively. For electrically heated retail store buildings, simulations indicated electricity savings in the range of 1200-1700 kWh/1000ft2 and 250-750 kW h/1000ft2, for Pre-1980 and 1980 + stocks, respectively.},
doi = {10.2172/816531},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/816531}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2003},
month = {3}
}