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Title: Toxicity of metallic ions and oxides to rabbit alveolar macrophages

Abstract

The effects of soluble compounds and oxides of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Zn on oxidative metabolism and membrane integrity of rabbit alveolar macrophages were studied by 24-hr in vitro exposure. Oxidative metabolism induced by phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan was measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and by chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol. Membrane integrity was estimated by extracellular LDH activity. Metallic ions and oxides inhibited the release of active oxygen species. Cd(II), As(III), and V(V) were the most toxic elements as measured by all investigated parameters. Cu(II) decreased O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and chemiluminescence effectively but H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and membrane integrity less. Chemiluminescence was decreased strongly by Hg(II) while O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release were depressed moderately. Zn(II) and Sb(III) compounds caused medium toxicity and the tested Sn, Ni, and Pb compounds showed only faint toxic effects.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. (Univ. of Hamburg (Germany, F.R.))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7059152
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; (USA); Journal Volume: 48:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ANTIMONY; TOXICITY; ARSENIC COMPOUNDS; CADMIUM COMPOUNDS; COPPER COMPOUNDS; LEAD COMPOUNDS; MACROPHAGES; INJURIES; MERCURY COMPOUNDS; NICKEL COMPOUNDS; VANADIUM; ZINC; CELL MEMBRANES; CHEMILUMINESCENCE; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LUNGS; METABOLISM; OXYGEN; RADICALS; ANIMAL CELLS; BODY; CELL CONSTITUENTS; CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS; ELEMENTS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; LUMINESCENCE; MEMBRANES; METALS; NONMETALS; ORGANS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PEROXIDES; PHAGOCYTES; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; SOMATIC CELLS; TRANSITION ELEMENT COMPOUNDS; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; 560300* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Labedzka, M., Gulyas, H., Schmidt, N., and Gercken, G.. Toxicity of metallic ions and oxides to rabbit alveolar macrophages. United States: N. p., 1989. Web. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(89)80039-8.
Labedzka, M., Gulyas, H., Schmidt, N., & Gercken, G.. Toxicity of metallic ions and oxides to rabbit alveolar macrophages. United States. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(89)80039-8.
Labedzka, M., Gulyas, H., Schmidt, N., and Gercken, G.. 1989. "Toxicity of metallic ions and oxides to rabbit alveolar macrophages". United States. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(89)80039-8.
@article{osti_7059152,
title = {Toxicity of metallic ions and oxides to rabbit alveolar macrophages},
author = {Labedzka, M. and Gulyas, H. and Schmidt, N. and Gercken, G.},
abstractNote = {The effects of soluble compounds and oxides of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Zn on oxidative metabolism and membrane integrity of rabbit alveolar macrophages were studied by 24-hr in vitro exposure. Oxidative metabolism induced by phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan was measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and by chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol. Membrane integrity was estimated by extracellular LDH activity. Metallic ions and oxides inhibited the release of active oxygen species. Cd(II), As(III), and V(V) were the most toxic elements as measured by all investigated parameters. Cu(II) decreased O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and chemiluminescence effectively but H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and membrane integrity less. Chemiluminescence was decreased strongly by Hg(II) while O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release were depressed moderately. Zn(II) and Sb(III) compounds caused medium toxicity and the tested Sn, Ni, and Pb compounds showed only faint toxic effects.},
doi = {10.1016/S0013-9351(89)80039-8},
journal = {Environmental Research; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 48:2,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month = 4
}
  • Airborne metallic particulates are associated with fossil-fueled power plants, automobile exhausts, metal mining, and metallurgical smelters. Therefore, the possible toxic effects of metals on the lung are of environmental and occupational concern. In this investigation the effects of in vitro exposure to metallic ions on the following parameters were determined: oxygen consumption and membrane integrity of alveolar macrophages and type II cells, and chemiluminescence of zymosan-stimulated alveolar macrophages. Cu/sup 2 +/ and Zn/sup 2 +/ exhibited marked toxicity to isolated alveolar macrophages and type II cells, while V/sup 3 +/ exhibited intermediate toxicity. In contrast, short-term in vitro exposure tomore » As/sup 5 +/ and Se/sup 4 +/ had little effect on alveolar macrophages and type II cells. Although the data suggest that exposure to certain metals may be harmful to the lung, the various pulmonary parameters tested in this investigation displsay differing susceptibility to metal exposure. That is, metals are less toxic to alveolar type II cells than to alveolar macrophages. Our data also indicate that chemiluminescence is the most sensitive assay for monitoring the viability of alveolar macrophages, while oxygen consumption is a sensitive assay for type II cells. 34 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.« less
  • A model system in vitro has been employed to assess the relative cytotoxic properties of soluble salts of metals that occur as environmental contaminants. Rabbit alveolar macrophages obtained by lung lavage were exposed in tissue culture for 20 hours to chlorides of Cd/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, and Cr/sup 3 +/ and to ammonium vanadate (VO/sub 3//sup -/). All metals except Cd/sup 2 +/ produced significant decreases in numbers of cells at concentrations that affected cell viability. Cd/sup 2 +/ was unique in decreasing cell viability without causing cell lysis. In comparing the relative cytotoxicity ofmore » the various metals, the number of viable cells remaining after 20 hours was expressed as a percent of the total number of cells in control cultures at 20 hours. Thus, the net number of viable cells was decreased to 50% of control at concentrations of 0.1 mM Cd/sup 2 +/ and VO/sub 3//sup -/ or 4-5 mM Ni/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, and Cr/sup 3 +/. The specific activity of acid phosphatase, a lysosomal indicator enzyme, was also decreased at similar concentrations. Using scanning electron microscopy it was possible to correlate surface alterations with exposure concentrations and cell viabilities so as to suggest a mode and sequence of cell injury which may ultimately lead to cell death. 30 references, 12 figures, 1 table.« less
  • Alveolar macrophages from eight rabbits, exposed for about 1 month (5 days/week, 6 hr/day) to an aerosol of nickel chloride, 0.3 mg/m/sup 3/ (as Ni), were studied. The number of macrophages in the lavage fluid and the variance of the cell diameter increased. The macrophages contained laminated structures and most cells had an active cell surface. A few macrophages had a large number of laminated structures and a smooth cell surface. The capacity of the macrophages to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) tended to be increased at rest and was significantly increased after stimulation with Escherichia coli. The bactericidal capacity ofmore » the macrophages was decreased. The effects were similar to those earlier described after exposure of rabbits for 1 month to about 1 mg/m/sup 3/ of metallic nickel dust. After exposure both to metallic and soluble nickel the effects are probably caused by an increased amount of surfactant produced by the type II cells in response to nickel ions.« less
  • Experiments by a V Cr-labeling technique were performed to investigate the effects of lead (PbS ) on immune phagocytosis and Fc-rosette formation of rabbit pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Evidence is presented that PbS at concentrations of 10( T) and 10( and=2$)M could inhibit these functions of PAMs. The degree of inhibition corresponded to the concentration of this heavy metal ion in vitro.
  • Rabbits were exposed (2h/d) to atmospheres consisting of 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/ (0.3 ..mu..m) H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ plus NO/sub 2/ at either 0.3 (low) or 1 ppm (high). Animals were sacrificed 24 h after 2, 6, or 13 exposures, and cells were recovered from the lungs by bronchopulmonary lavage. Exposure to high NO/sub 2/ with acid resulted in an increase in neutrophils at all time points and an increase in phagocytic capacity of macrophages after two or six exposures. On the other hand, exposure to the low NO/sub 2/ with acid resulted in depressed phagocytic capacity and mobility. The results weremore » compared with those for NO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ given alone.« less