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Title: Nucleation and growth of diamond on carbon-implanted single crystal copper surfaces

Abstract

The nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on single crystal copper surfaces has been studied. Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) was used for diamond nucleation and growth. Prior to diamond nucleation, the single crystal copper surface is modified by carbon ion implantation at an elevated temperature ({similar to}820 {degree}C). This procedure leads to the formation of a graphite film on the copper surface, resulting in an enhancement of diamond crystallite nucleation. A simple lattice model has been constructed to describe the mechanism of diamond nucleation on graphite as {l angle}111{r angle}{sub diamond} parallel to {l angle}0001{r angle}{sub graphite} and {l angle}110{r angle}{sub diamond} parallel to {l angle}1120{r angle}{sub graphite}. This leads to a good understanding of diamond growth on carbon-implanted copper surfaces.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. (Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States))
  2. (Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7049274
DOE Contract Number:
FG02-87ER45314; AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Materials Research; (United States); Journal Volume: 7:9
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; DIAMONDS; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; NUCLEATION; CARBON IONS; COPPER; ION IMPLANTATION; MONOCRYSTALS; STRUCTURAL MODELS; SURFACES; CARBON; CHARGED PARTICLES; CHEMICAL COATING; CRYSTALS; DEPOSITION; ELEMENTAL MINERALS; ELEMENTS; IONS; METALS; MINERALS; NONMETALS; SURFACE COATING; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; 360601* - Other Materials- Preparation & Manufacture

Citation Formats

Ong, T.P., Xiong, F., Chang, R.P.H., and White, C.W. Nucleation and growth of diamond on carbon-implanted single crystal copper surfaces. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.1557/JMR.1992.2429.
Ong, T.P., Xiong, F., Chang, R.P.H., & White, C.W. Nucleation and growth of diamond on carbon-implanted single crystal copper surfaces. United States. doi:10.1557/JMR.1992.2429.
Ong, T.P., Xiong, F., Chang, R.P.H., and White, C.W. Tue . "Nucleation and growth of diamond on carbon-implanted single crystal copper surfaces". United States. doi:10.1557/JMR.1992.2429.
@article{osti_7049274,
title = {Nucleation and growth of diamond on carbon-implanted single crystal copper surfaces},
author = {Ong, T.P. and Xiong, F. and Chang, R.P.H. and White, C.W.},
abstractNote = {The nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on single crystal copper surfaces has been studied. Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) was used for diamond nucleation and growth. Prior to diamond nucleation, the single crystal copper surface is modified by carbon ion implantation at an elevated temperature ({similar to}820 {degree}C). This procedure leads to the formation of a graphite film on the copper surface, resulting in an enhancement of diamond crystallite nucleation. A simple lattice model has been constructed to describe the mechanism of diamond nucleation on graphite as {l angle}111{r angle}{sub diamond} parallel to {l angle}0001{r angle}{sub graphite} and {l angle}110{r angle}{sub diamond} parallel to {l angle}1120{r angle}{sub graphite}. This leads to a good understanding of diamond growth on carbon-implanted copper surfaces.},
doi = {10.1557/JMR.1992.2429},
journal = {Journal of Materials Research; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 7:9,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1992},
month = {Tue Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1992}
}
  • The nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on single-crystal copper surfaces implanted with carbon ions has been studied. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used for diamond growth. The single-crystal copper substrates were implanted either at room temperature or at elevated temperature ({similar to}820 {degree}C) with carbon ions prior to diamond nucleation. This procedure leads to the formation of a graphite film on the copper surface which greatly enhances diamond crystallite nucleation. From our study we construct a simple lattice model for diamond growth on graphite as {l angle}111{r angle}{sub diamond} parallel to {l angle}0001{r angle}{sub graphite} and {l angle}110{rmore » angle}{sub diamond} parallel to {l angle}11{bar 2}0{r angle}{sub graphite}.« less
  • Cited by 2
  • We use a density-functional based tight-binding method to study diamond growth by C{sub 2} on a nonhydrogenated diamond (100)-(2 x 1) surface. The study is motivated by advances in the growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films under hydrogen-poor conditions. We identify and classify stable adsorbate configurations formed above dimer rows and troughs on the reconstructed surface. We also investigate adsorption and migration barriers using the nudged elastic band method. We find viable adsorption pathways leading to chain growth and step advancement. Initial depositions proceed without barriers into topologically imperfect configurations. The most stable configuration is a growth position that bridgesmore » two adjacent surface dimers along a dimer row. It is reached over a barrier of 1.2 eV and has an adsorption energy of -6.9 eV. Many other configurations exist that have adsorption energies differing by up to 2.7 eV. By comparison, analogous structures for silicon are fewer in number and closer in energy because Si lacks {pi} bonding, which is important for C{sub 2} on diamond. Migration barriers for ad-dimers are in the range of 2-3 eV due to relatively large differences in the energies of intermediate local minima. Comparing our results with previous studies on the (110) surface, we note that barriers leading to growth are higher and pathways are more complex on the (100) surface. The barriers suggest that reactions leading to both growth and re-nucleation are possible, which helps to understand the small observed grain sizes in UNCD.« less
  • The growth of diamond thin films on glassy carbon substrates has been investigated as a function of deposition time for different surface treatments. Implantation of Ti to a dose of 1.7[times]10[sup 17] cm[sup [minus]2] and abrasion with diamond powder have both been examined to determine their effect on film nucleation and growth. At the shorter deposition times studied, diamond nucleation was observed on all test samples with those subjected to the abrasive pretreatment exhibiting the higher growth rates. However, the adhesion and uniformity of films on unimplanted glassy carbon were found to deteriorate significantly following deposition runs of 14 andmore » 21 h duration. This was attributed to a destabilization of the underlying surface caused by plasma erosion.« less
  • The recent adoption of copper interconnect technology by the semiconductor industry, has led to great interest in understanding the mechanisms of copper metal deposition onto silicon wafer surfaces from ultra pure water (UPW) solutions. We have studied these processes by using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) in a grazing incidence geometry to determine the surface concentration and chemical state of copper atoms on intentionally contaminated Si surfaces. These measurements established that in deoxygenated UPW, copper is deposited on the silicon surface in the form of metallic nanoparticles with sizes up to 16 nm.more » However, in non-deoxygenated UPW, the copper is incorporated uniformly into the silicon surface oxide as Cu oxide.« less