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Title: Pulmonary response to ozone: Reaction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph node lymphocytes in the rat

Abstract

The purpose of this work is to assess the effect of ozone, a reactive product of environmental photochemical oxidation, on lymphocytes of the lung. We exposed male Fischer rats to ozone at a concentration of 0.5 ppm for 20 hr/day for 1-14 days. Animals were treated with radioactive thymidine and were sacrificed at Day 1, 2, 3, 7, or 14 of exposure. Lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes were removed and prepared for histologic examination, evaluation of labeling indexes, and morphometric measurement. We examined two components of the lymphocyte response of the lung: the airway-related response, represented by the reaction of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), and the deep lung-related response, represented by reaction of the mediastinal lymph node. Lymphocytes of both the BALT and the mediastinal lymph node showed elevated radioactive thymidine uptake; however, no evidence of cell death was observed at either site. The cells of the specialized epithelium covering the BALT (lymphoepithelium) showed increased vacuolization, indicating altered cellular function. The average size of BALTs was unchanged by ozone exposure. Under experimental conditions ozone can affect a variety of cells in the lung including bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages, and Type 1 cells. We have shown for the first timemore » that in addition to these cells, the rat BALT also proliferates in response to ozone. In addition we confirm previous work in the mouse which shows that the mediastinal lymph node reacts as well. The airways can be affected by inflammation, can be targets of infection, and can respond to chemical irritants with bronchoconstrictive responses. They are an important target organ for hypersensitivity responses and are a primary site for pulmonary cancer formation. A role for lymphocytes has been implicated in each of these processes.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. (General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI (USA))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7042543
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; (USA); Journal Volume: 51:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; LUNGS; SENSITIVITY; LYMPHOCYTES; CELL PROLIFERATION; OZONE; TOXICITY; EPITHELIUM; EXPOSURE CHAMBERS; LYMPH NODES; MACROPHAGES; RADIOISOTOPES; RATS; THYMIDINE; TRACER TECHNIQUES; ANIMAL CELLS; ANIMAL TISSUES; ANIMALS; AZINES; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BLOOD; BLOOD CELLS; BODY; BODY FLUIDS; CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS; HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS; ISOTOPE APPLICATIONS; ISOTOPES; LEUKOCYTES; LYMPHATIC SYSTEM; MAMMALS; MATERIALS; NUCLEOSIDES; NUCLEOTIDES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; ORGANS; PHAGOCYTES; PYRIMIDINES; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; RIBOSIDES; RODENTS; SOMATIC CELLS; TISSUES; VERTEBRATES; 560300* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology; 550501 - Metabolism- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

Dziedzic, D., Wright, E.S., and Sargent, N.E. Pulmonary response to ozone: Reaction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph node lymphocytes in the rat. United States: N. p., 1990. Web. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(05)80089-1.
Dziedzic, D., Wright, E.S., & Sargent, N.E. Pulmonary response to ozone: Reaction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph node lymphocytes in the rat. United States. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(05)80089-1.
Dziedzic, D., Wright, E.S., and Sargent, N.E. Sun . "Pulmonary response to ozone: Reaction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph node lymphocytes in the rat". United States. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(05)80089-1.
@article{osti_7042543,
title = {Pulmonary response to ozone: Reaction of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph node lymphocytes in the rat},
author = {Dziedzic, D. and Wright, E.S. and Sargent, N.E.},
abstractNote = {The purpose of this work is to assess the effect of ozone, a reactive product of environmental photochemical oxidation, on lymphocytes of the lung. We exposed male Fischer rats to ozone at a concentration of 0.5 ppm for 20 hr/day for 1-14 days. Animals were treated with radioactive thymidine and were sacrificed at Day 1, 2, 3, 7, or 14 of exposure. Lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes were removed and prepared for histologic examination, evaluation of labeling indexes, and morphometric measurement. We examined two components of the lymphocyte response of the lung: the airway-related response, represented by the reaction of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), and the deep lung-related response, represented by reaction of the mediastinal lymph node. Lymphocytes of both the BALT and the mediastinal lymph node showed elevated radioactive thymidine uptake; however, no evidence of cell death was observed at either site. The cells of the specialized epithelium covering the BALT (lymphoepithelium) showed increased vacuolization, indicating altered cellular function. The average size of BALTs was unchanged by ozone exposure. Under experimental conditions ozone can affect a variety of cells in the lung including bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages, and Type 1 cells. We have shown for the first time that in addition to these cells, the rat BALT also proliferates in response to ozone. In addition we confirm previous work in the mouse which shows that the mediastinal lymph node reacts as well. The airways can be affected by inflammation, can be targets of infection, and can respond to chemical irritants with bronchoconstrictive responses. They are an important target organ for hypersensitivity responses and are a primary site for pulmonary cancer formation. A role for lymphocytes has been implicated in each of these processes.},
doi = {10.1016/S0013-9351(05)80089-1},
journal = {Environmental Research; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 51:2,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Apr 01 00:00:00 EST 1990},
month = {Sun Apr 01 00:00:00 EST 1990}
}
  • Ozone is an oxidant gas which primarily injures the centroacinar portion of the lung. While the classical lesion of oxidant-mediated lung damage is relatively well described, the effect of this form of injury on the lymphocytic arm of the pulmonary defense system is less clear. In the present experiments Cd-1 female mice were exposed to ozone at a level of 0.7 ppm for 20 hr per day for 1-28 days and the lymphocyte response was observed in the pulmonary lymph nodes and the thymus. In the mediastinal lymph nodes a marked hyperplastic response was observed that was prominent in themore » paracortex and was characterized by the presence of blastic forms. In contrast, the thymus underwent an atrophic response characterized by cellular loss in the cortical region. Prior surgical adrenalectomy of ozone-exposed animals eliminated part, but not all of the thymic atrophy response, indicating that adrenal-mediated stress alone did not account for all the observed effect. Thymectomy of animals prior to ozone exposure produced a 40% reduction in the mediastinal lymph node response, suggesting that a part of the node hyperplasia is thymus dependent. The results of these experiments indicate that lymphoid organs are altered following oxidant-mediated lung damage in the mouse. The changes are observed in the absence of exogenous antigenic stimulation and suggest that lymphoid cells are in integral aspect of the host response to high-level ozone inhalation.« less
  • Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up wasmore » 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.« less