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Title: Effect of uniaxial stress on the reversible and irreversible permeabilities of 2% Mn pipeline steel

Abstract

The results of a study of the effects of constant uniaxial stress on the irreversible and reversible differential permeabilities of minor and saturation major hysteresis loops are presented, extending an earlier study which studied those permeability components on the initial magnetization curve. Tension was found to increase both the reversible and irreversible components of the saturation major loop differential permeability in the low magnetization region, and to decrease them in the high magnetization region. The opposite effect was found for compression. This effect was explained as the result of changes in the domain structure of the sample when stressed and a resulting change in the ratio of 90[degree] of 180[degree] domain walls. The differences between the upper and lower branches of the saturation major hysteresis loop reversible relative differential permeability were found to increase in tension and decrease in compression, with more complicated behavior occurring in the irreversible component. Minor loop behavior was also found to vary depending on the magnetization of the sample. In the low magnetization region tension was found to produce higher values and larger variations in both components of the relative differential permeability than the unstressed case, while compression produced lower values and smaller variations. Themore » opposite behavior was found to be true in the high magnetization region, while an intermediate behavior with little or no change in both the relative differential permeability components was found to exist between the two extreme cases.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
7019085
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers); (United States); Journal Volume: 30:4Pt1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; LOW ALLOY STEELS; MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; HYSTERESIS; MANGANESE ALLOYS; ALLOYS; DATA; INFORMATION; IRON ALLOYS; IRON BASE ALLOYS; MAGNETIC PROPERTIES; NUMERICAL DATA; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; STEELS; 360104* - Metals & Alloys- Physical Properties

Citation Formats

Makar, J.M., and Atherton, D.L. Effect of uniaxial stress on the reversible and irreversible permeabilities of 2% Mn pipeline steel. United States: N. p., 1994. Web. doi:10.1109/20.305536.
Makar, J.M., & Atherton, D.L. Effect of uniaxial stress on the reversible and irreversible permeabilities of 2% Mn pipeline steel. United States. doi:10.1109/20.305536.
Makar, J.M., and Atherton, D.L. 1994. "Effect of uniaxial stress on the reversible and irreversible permeabilities of 2% Mn pipeline steel". United States. doi:10.1109/20.305536.
@article{osti_7019085,
title = {Effect of uniaxial stress on the reversible and irreversible permeabilities of 2% Mn pipeline steel},
author = {Makar, J.M. and Atherton, D.L.},
abstractNote = {The results of a study of the effects of constant uniaxial stress on the irreversible and reversible differential permeabilities of minor and saturation major hysteresis loops are presented, extending an earlier study which studied those permeability components on the initial magnetization curve. Tension was found to increase both the reversible and irreversible components of the saturation major loop differential permeability in the low magnetization region, and to decrease them in the high magnetization region. The opposite effect was found for compression. This effect was explained as the result of changes in the domain structure of the sample when stressed and a resulting change in the ratio of 90[degree] of 180[degree] domain walls. The differences between the upper and lower branches of the saturation major hysteresis loop reversible relative differential permeability were found to increase in tension and decrease in compression, with more complicated behavior occurring in the irreversible component. Minor loop behavior was also found to vary depending on the magnetization of the sample. In the low magnetization region tension was found to produce higher values and larger variations in both components of the relative differential permeability than the unstressed case, while compression produced lower values and smaller variations. The opposite behavior was found to be true in the high magnetization region, while an intermediate behavior with little or no change in both the relative differential permeability components was found to exist between the two extreme cases.},
doi = {10.1109/20.305536},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 30:4Pt1,
place = {United States},
year = 1994,
month = 7
}
  • Measurements of the effects of cyclic stress on the magnetization of a sample of 0.08%-C 2%-Mn pipeline steel are presented. The sample was magnetized to a position on the upper branch of the near saturation major hysteresis loop. Cyclic uniaxial tension or compression was then applied to the sample under isofield conditions. Two types of stress cycle were tested, one where the maximum stress applied to the sample increased after every cycle, and one where the maximum stress was held at a constant value for each cycle. Plots of the resulting changes in the magnetization indicated the presence of twomore » types of irreversible behavior produced by the stress cycles -- irreversible changes in the unstressed magnetization and stress-magnetization hysteresis. The former behavior was found to fall into three different categories that depended on the magnetization of the sample and the type of applied stress. These categories were analyzed in terms of the expected effects of the different stresses on the different magnetization mechanisms, namely, 180 [degree] domain wall motions, 90 [degree] domain wall motions, and domain magnetization vector rotations.« less
  • Previous work on the initial magnetization curve and major hysteresis loops suggested that applying either cyclic tension or compression to a sample of ferromagnetic material caused the magnetization to move irreversibly towards the anhysteretic curve. This explanation suggests that if the magnetization of the sample for a given field value is the same as that of a point along the anhysteretic curve, no irreversible change in magnetization should take place when an isofield cyclic uniaxial stress on the magnetization of a 2% Mn pipeline sample on small major hysteresis loops and minor hysteresis loops is presented here. The results showmore » that the sense of the stress-induced irreversible changes in the unstressed magnetization is not always towards the anhysteretic. Examples where the change is away from the anhysteretic are shown, as well as cases where the cyclic uniaxial stress does not cause an irreversible change in the sample`s unstressed magnetization when that magnetization does not coincide with a point along the anhysteretic curve.« less
  • The application of cyclic stress to a ferromagnetic normally gives irreversible magnetization shifts towards the anhysteretic magnetization. Here experimental measurements are presented that show the irreversible magnetization changes induced by cyclic uniaxial isofield stress applied after magnetization at particular points on minor hysteresis loops. Selecting the (M,H) point and magnetization history, then applying stress cycles of increasing amplitude enables irreversible changes, initially away from and later toward the anhysteretic curve, to be obtained. Examples of a second inversion (i.e., irreversible shifts initially toward, then away and subsequently, toward the anhysteretic magnetization) with increasing amplitude cyclic uniaxial stress are also given.more » Preisach diagrams are used to interpret these results qualitatively in terms of local, more extensive and global anhysteretic states.« less
  • Magnetic hysteresis loops in three orthogonal directions are measured for a line pipe steel sample while the external magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the tensile stress direction. The total magnetization vector is calculated. This tends to the stress direction when tensile stress is applied. The reversible and irreversible differential magnetic susceptibilities are derived. It is found that the susceptibilities in all three directions are enhanced with increasing tensile stress, although the increase in the stress direction is much larger than in the other directions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
  • Surface Barkhausen noise (SBN) measurements were mae on a 2-percent Mn pipeline steel sample subjected to different levels of applied tensile and compressive isostress. The magnetic field direction was varied through a full 360{degrees}. SBN voltage was found to depend on both stress level and magnetic field direction. The results were analyzed in terms of the reorientation of magnetic moments from axial to circumferential directions with increasing tension. Compression was found to re-align the magnetic moments in the axial direction.