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Title: Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)

Abstract

Diets specifically deficient in selenium (Se) and/or vitamin E or adequate in both nutrients were fed to chicks from the time of hatching. Lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus, and in some instances, spleen) were collected from chicks 7-35 days of age. Growth of the chicks fed these diets was monitored over the experimental period as was lymphoid organ growth. The development of the primary lymphoid organs was further assessed by histological techniques and the organ contents of vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol) and Se were determined. Specific deficiencies of either Se or vitamin E were found to significantly impair bursal growth as did a combined deficiency. Thymic growth was impaired only by the combined deficiency diet. Severe histopathological changes in the bursa resulted from the combined deficiency and these were detectable by 10-14 days after hatching. These changes were characterized by a gradual degeneration of the epithelium and an accompanying depletion of lymphocytes. Similar changes, although slower to develop and less severe, were observed in the thymus as a result of the combined deficiency. When both serum and tissue levels of vitamin E and Se were monitored, it was observed that these were rapidly and independently depleted by the specific deficiency diets.more » These data suggest that the primary lymphoid organs are major targets of Se and vitamin E dietary deficiencies and provide a possible mechanism by which immune function may be impaired.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY
OSTI Identifier:
6936086
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.; (United States); Journal Volume: 182:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; CHICKENS; ANIMAL GROWTH; SELENIUM; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; VITAMIN E; CRITICAL ORGANS; EPITHELIUM; IMMUNOLOGY; LYMPHOCYTES; NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY; PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES; THYMUS; ANIMAL CELLS; ANIMAL TISSUES; ANIMALS; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BIRDS; BLOOD; BLOOD CELLS; BODY; BODY FLUIDS; CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS; ELEMENTS; FOWL; GROWTH; LEUKOCYTES; LYMPHATIC SYSTEM; MATERIALS; ORGANS; SEMIMETALS; SOMATIC CELLS; TISSUES; VERTEBRATES; VITAMINS 550500* -- Metabolism

Citation Formats

Marsh, J.A., Combs, G.F. Jr., Whitacre, M.E., and Dietert, R.R. Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361). United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.3181/00379727-182-42361.
Marsh, J.A., Combs, G.F. Jr., Whitacre, M.E., & Dietert, R.R. Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361). United States. doi:10.3181/00379727-182-42361.
Marsh, J.A., Combs, G.F. Jr., Whitacre, M.E., and Dietert, R.R. 1986. "Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)". United States. doi:10.3181/00379727-182-42361.
@article{osti_6936086,
title = {Effect of selenium and vitamin E dietary deficiencies on chick lymphoid organ development (42361)},
author = {Marsh, J.A. and Combs, G.F. Jr. and Whitacre, M.E. and Dietert, R.R.},
abstractNote = {Diets specifically deficient in selenium (Se) and/or vitamin E or adequate in both nutrients were fed to chicks from the time of hatching. Lymphoid organs (bursa, thymus, and in some instances, spleen) were collected from chicks 7-35 days of age. Growth of the chicks fed these diets was monitored over the experimental period as was lymphoid organ growth. The development of the primary lymphoid organs was further assessed by histological techniques and the organ contents of vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol) and Se were determined. Specific deficiencies of either Se or vitamin E were found to significantly impair bursal growth as did a combined deficiency. Thymic growth was impaired only by the combined deficiency diet. Severe histopathological changes in the bursa resulted from the combined deficiency and these were detectable by 10-14 days after hatching. These changes were characterized by a gradual degeneration of the epithelium and an accompanying depletion of lymphocytes. Similar changes, although slower to develop and less severe, were observed in the thymus as a result of the combined deficiency. When both serum and tissue levels of vitamin E and Se were monitored, it was observed that these were rapidly and independently depleted by the specific deficiency diets. These data suggest that the primary lymphoid organs are major targets of Se and vitamin E dietary deficiencies and provide a possible mechanism by which immune function may be impaired.},
doi = {10.3181/00379727-182-42361},
journal = {Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 182:4,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 9
}
  • S>Three-week-old chicks fed either a vitamin-E--deficient or supplemented diet were intraperitoneally injected with Se/sup 75/, and distribution of the isotope was determined in various tissues at 24, 48, and 168 hours after injection. Similarly, 2-week-old chicks fed a selenium deficient or supplemented diet were given an oral dose of Se/sup 75/ and the distribution of the isotope in several tissues was determined at 24 and 168 hours after administration. Vitamin E had no effect on distribution of selenium, but selenium itself had a marked effect on the uptake and retention of radioselenium. One-half of the dose was retained by selenium-deficientmore » chicks at 7 days, whereas only 1/5 of the dose was retained by chicks fed 1 ppm selenium from day-of-age. Considerable selenium was deposited and retained in the cerebellum of chicks even though this element cannot prevent encephalomalacia. (auth)« less
  • The fate of exogenous /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (/sup 14/C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of /sup 14/C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused /sup 14/C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted ofmore » unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of /sup 14/C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols.« less
  • Attempts were made to ascertain the factor or factors in the natural feedstuffs diet, which, in the presence of vitamin B/sub 12/, decrease the retention of S/sup 35/ by chick skeletal tissue 24 hr after administration. Also studied was the rate of S/sup 35/ uptake by various tissues of the chick as influenced by vitamin B/sub 12/. When given with vitamin B/sub 12/, as a dietary supplement or administered at the time of S/sup 35/ administration, dietary protein was found to influence uptake of S/sup 35/. Soybean oil meal, normally used in practical chick diets, gives the largest response. Whenmore » soybean oil meal was compared to casein and Drackett, the higher response to S/sup 35/ uptake by the chick skeletal tissue was in the casein dietary group. The S/sup 35/ retention with the casein group, containing the highest level of sulfur amino acids, tends to minimize the body dilution theory in favor of the biological value of the protein and a possible sparing effect in relation to methionine and cysteine for protein or other synthesis. The results indicate increased retention of S/sup 35/ with increased vitamin B/sub 12/ levels, possibly through the sulfatefixing enzyme system. (TCO)« less
  • The early lung inflammatory response to cigarette smoke may be oxidant-mediated. We fed Syrian hamsters a diet deficient in selenium and vitamin E to determine whether impairment of the lung's antioxidant defenses might worsen inflammation induced by cigarette smoke. After 8 wk, cigarette-smoke-exposed animals had characteristic inflammatory lesions in the distal airways. Increased numbers of phagocytes, predominantly macrophages, were recovered by lavage and these cells exhibited enhanced oxidative metabolism. Animals fed the deficient diet had profound depletions of selenium and vitamin E, but no alterations in the histologic appearance of smoke-induced inflammatory lesions, in the numbers of phagocytes recruited, ormore » in the oxidative metabolism of these phagocytes. These results suggest that selenium and vitamin E are unimportant in protecting against cigarette-smoke-induced lung injury.« less
  • When added to the medium, cadmium (4 x 10/sup -5/ M) inhibits 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol(1..cap alpha..,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/)-mediated responses in the organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum: decreases induction of a specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP), prevents the elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, and reduces the ability of the tissue to absorb radiocalcium at the mucosal surface. The cadmium effect is clearly not generalized cytotoxicity: total protein concentration actually increased after cadmium treatment, and the effect of a 24-h culture in the presence of cadmium is largely reversed during a subsequent 24-h period. These results may be taken as evidence that cadmium can interferemore » with vitamin D action at the level of the target organ itself and is not necessarily secondary to alteration in Vitamin D metabolism.« less