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Title: Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors

Abstract

The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49more » malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6743283
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Human Genetics; (USA); Journal Volume: 46:6
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; GENE MUTATIONS; RADIOINDUCTION; IONIZING RADIATIONS; TERATOGENESIS; OVARIES; RADIATION DOSES; TESTES; A-BOMB SURVIVORS; CHILDREN; GENES; HIROSHIMA; INFANTS; LEUKEMIA; NAGASAKI; NEOPLASMS; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; REGRESSION ANALYSIS; RISK ASSESSMENT; WARFARE; AGE GROUPS; ASIA; BODY; DISEASES; DOSES; FEMALE GENITALS; GONADS; HEMIC DISEASES; HUMAN POPULATIONS; IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES; JAPAN; MALE GENITALS; MATHEMATICS; MUTATIONS; ORGANS; POPULATIONS; RADIATIONS; STATISTICS; WEAPONS 560151* -- Radiation Effects on Animals-- Man

Citation Formats

Yoshimoto, Y., Neel, J.V., Schull, W.J., Kato, H., Soda, M., Eto, R., and Mabuchi, K.. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Yoshimoto, Y., Neel, J.V., Schull, W.J., Kato, H., Soda, M., Eto, R., & Mabuchi, K.. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. United States.
Yoshimoto, Y., Neel, J.V., Schull, W.J., Kato, H., Soda, M., Eto, R., and Mabuchi, K.. 1990. "Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6743283,
title = {Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors},
author = {Yoshimoto, Y. and Neel, J.V. and Schull, W.J. and Kato, H. and Soda, M. and Eto, R. and Mabuchi, K.},
abstractNote = {The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system.},
doi = {},
journal = {American Journal of Human Genetics; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 46:6,
place = {United States},
year = 1990,
month = 6
}
  • From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be wellmore » estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche.« less