skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Distribution of a macaque immunosuppressive type D retrovirus in neural, lymphoid, and salivary tissues

Abstract

Simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California Primate Research Center is caused by a type D retrovirus designated SAIDS retrovirus serotype 1 (SRV-1). This syndrome is characterized by profound immunosuppression and death associated with opportunistic infections. Neurologic signs and lesions have not been described as part of this syndrome. The distribution of SRV-1 in the salivary glands, lymph nodes, spleens, thymuses, and brains of eight virus-infected rhesus macaques was examined by immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy, in situ RNA hybridization, and Southern blot hybridization were also performed on selected tissues to detect viral particles, RNA, and DNA, respectively. In seven of eight SRV-1-infected animals, the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (gp20) of SRV-1 was present in three or more tissues, but never in the brain. In the remaining animal, no viral antigen was detected in any tissue. In this same group of animals, viral nucleic acid was detected in the lymph nodes of six of six animals by Southern blot hybridization, in the salivary glands of two of five animals by both Southern blot and in situ hybridizations, and, surprisingly, in the brains of three of three animals by Southern blot and of three of five animalsmore » by in situ hybridization, including the one animal in which viral gp20 was undetectable. None of these animals had neurologic signs or lesions. The detection of viral nucleic acid in the absence of viral antigen in the brain suggests latent SRV-1 infection of the central nervous system.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6522739
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Virology; (USA); Journal Volume: 62:6
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; BRAIN; AUTORADIOGRAPHY; LYMPH NODES; SALIVARY GLANDS; VIRUSES; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; CYTOCHEMISTRY; DNA HYBRIDIZATION; MONKEYS; RNA; SULFUR 35; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; ANIMALS; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BIOCHEMISTRY; BODY; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; CHEMISTRY; DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; DISTRIBUTION; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; EVEN-ODD NUCLEI; GLANDS; HYBRIDIZATION; ISOTOPES; LIGHT NUCLEI; LYMPHATIC SYSTEM; MAMMALS; MICROORGANISMS; MICROSCOPY; NERVOUS SYSTEM; NUCLEI; NUCLEIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANS; PARASITES; PRIMATES; RADIOISOTOPES; SULFUR ISOTOPES; VERTEBRATES; 550701* - Microbiology- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

Lackner, A.A., Rodriguez, M.H., Bush, C.E., Munn, R.J., Kwang, Hweising, Moore, P.F., Osborn, K.G., Marx, P.A., Gardner, M.B., and Lowenstine, L.J.. Distribution of a macaque immunosuppressive type D retrovirus in neural, lymphoid, and salivary tissues. United States: N. p., 1988. Web.
Lackner, A.A., Rodriguez, M.H., Bush, C.E., Munn, R.J., Kwang, Hweising, Moore, P.F., Osborn, K.G., Marx, P.A., Gardner, M.B., & Lowenstine, L.J.. Distribution of a macaque immunosuppressive type D retrovirus in neural, lymphoid, and salivary tissues. United States.
Lackner, A.A., Rodriguez, M.H., Bush, C.E., Munn, R.J., Kwang, Hweising, Moore, P.F., Osborn, K.G., Marx, P.A., Gardner, M.B., and Lowenstine, L.J.. 1988. "Distribution of a macaque immunosuppressive type D retrovirus in neural, lymphoid, and salivary tissues". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6522739,
title = {Distribution of a macaque immunosuppressive type D retrovirus in neural, lymphoid, and salivary tissues},
author = {Lackner, A.A. and Rodriguez, M.H. and Bush, C.E. and Munn, R.J. and Kwang, Hweising and Moore, P.F. and Osborn, K.G. and Marx, P.A. and Gardner, M.B. and Lowenstine, L.J.},
abstractNote = {Simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California Primate Research Center is caused by a type D retrovirus designated SAIDS retrovirus serotype 1 (SRV-1). This syndrome is characterized by profound immunosuppression and death associated with opportunistic infections. Neurologic signs and lesions have not been described as part of this syndrome. The distribution of SRV-1 in the salivary glands, lymph nodes, spleens, thymuses, and brains of eight virus-infected rhesus macaques was examined by immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy, in situ RNA hybridization, and Southern blot hybridization were also performed on selected tissues to detect viral particles, RNA, and DNA, respectively. In seven of eight SRV-1-infected animals, the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (gp20) of SRV-1 was present in three or more tissues, but never in the brain. In the remaining animal, no viral antigen was detected in any tissue. In this same group of animals, viral nucleic acid was detected in the lymph nodes of six of six animals by Southern blot hybridization, in the salivary glands of two of five animals by both Southern blot and in situ hybridizations, and, surprisingly, in the brains of three of three animals by Southern blot and of three of five animals by in situ hybridization, including the one animal in which viral gp20 was undetectable. None of these animals had neurologic signs or lesions. The detection of viral nucleic acid in the absence of viral antigen in the brain suggests latent SRV-1 infection of the central nervous system.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of Virology; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 62:6,
place = {United States},
year = 1988,
month = 6
}
  • Distributions of B and T lymphocytes in blood and various lymphoid tissues of clinically normal adult and fetal sheep were studied. The B and T lymphocytes were identified in enriched preparations of blood lymphocytes and cell suspensions of solid tissues. The T lymphocytes were quantitated by indirect immunofluorescence, using rabbit antisera to sheep thymus cells. The B lymphocytes were identified by direct immunofluorescence, using rabbit antisera to sheep immunoglobulin.
  • Radiation induced alterations in the number and immune functions of peripheral blood lymphocytes have recently been described in patients treated with fractionated localized or extended field radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast, lung, bladder uterine cervix, prostate, testicular tumors, head and neck tumors, Hodgkin's disease, and in children receiving prophylactic craniospinal radiation for acute lymphoblast leukemia. Most studies have demonstrated an acture peripheral blood lymphocytopenia and varying degrees of suppression of immune functions such as the in vitro blastogenic responses to stimulation with lectins or with allogeneic lymphocytes in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and in the in vivo delayedmore » hypersensitivity responses to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and intradermally injected bacterial and fungal antigens. Most studies have also shown various degrees of recovery of the above immune functions within the first few years after completion of treatment.« less
  • Beginning in November 1981, eight patients with end stage diabetic nephropathy underwent renal cadaveric transplantation after TLI. Transplantation was done between 2 to 11 days after the end of a fractionated TLI to a total dose of 20 to 30 Gy. During the same observation period, 60 nondiabetic patients with end stage renal disease of different origin also received a cadaveric kidney graft, with a conventional regimen of immunosuppression that consists of anti-lymphocyte-globulin, tapering high doses of prednisone, and azathioprine. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-, concanavalin A (con A)-, and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-induced blastogenesis, as well as the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) andmore » the cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) decreased progressively during the first months after conventional immunosuppression to 50% of the pretransplantation level, and remained there for the first year after transplantation. These tests were much more impaired after TLI and again no recovery occurred during the first year. In the clinic, the more profound immunosuppression in TLI patients was more frequently associated with viral infections (cytomegalovirus and herpes zoster). The incidence of rejections, however, was somewhat less frequent in the TLI-treated group and occurred significantly later. After TLI, the mean cumulative dose of steroids needed for kidney transplantation during the first year after transplantation could be substantially reduced.« less
  • Three groups of C/sub 57//BL/Ka mice received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in a total dose of 34 Gy in three different fractionation schedules. In the first group daily fractions of 2 Gy were given during 3 1/2 weeks. In the second group 4 to 5 fractions with 3 1/2 hr interval were given each day, thus delivering 17 fractions in 4 days. In the third group three fractions were given daily for two consecutive days and was repeated two times after 8 or 9 days interval, resulting in a total treatment time of 3 1/2 weeks. The tolerance of allmore » different schedules was excellent. No difference in the peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts nor the degree of immunosuppression as measured by phytohaemaglutinin or concanavalin A induced blastogenesis and mixed lymphocyte reaction were observed at the end of the treatment and up to 200 days. When bone marrow transplantation was performed one day after the end of each schedule, chimerism without signs of graft versus host disease was induced in all the groups. However, from the results in a limited number of animals it seems that concentrated schedules were less effective for chimerism induction. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to reduce drastically the overall treatment time for TLI before bone marrow transplantation. Further investigations are necessary in order to determine the optimal time-dose-fractionation factors and the different parameters involved in the transplantation.« less