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Title: A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

Abstract

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States)
  2. Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Frederick, MD (United States)
  3. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)
  4. Hood Coll., Frederick, MD (United States). Dept. of Biology
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
64491
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: PBD: May 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; TOXIC MATERIALS; BIOASSAY; ROTIFERA; SENSITIVITY; PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA; FATHEAD MINNOW; LETTUCE; DAPHNIA; SHRIMP

Citation Formats

Toussaint, M.W., Shedd, T.R., Schalie, W.H. van der, and Leather, G.R. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.1002/etc.5620140524.
Toussaint, M.W., Shedd, T.R., Schalie, W.H. van der, & Leather, G.R. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests. United States. doi:10.1002/etc.5620140524.
Toussaint, M.W., Shedd, T.R., Schalie, W.H. van der, and Leather, G.R. 1995. "A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests". United States. doi:10.1002/etc.5620140524.
@article{osti_64491,
title = {A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests},
author = {Toussaint, M.W. and Shedd, T.R. and Schalie, W.H. van der and Leather, G.R.},
abstractNote = {This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.},
doi = {10.1002/etc.5620140524},
journal = {Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
number = 5,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = 1995,
month = 5
}
  • This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivitymore » comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.« less
  • This study evaluated the use of Nothobranchius guentheri as a novel organism for rapid acute toxicity screening. A major advantage of the species is that there is no need to maintain a continuous culture to have organisms immediately available for testing. Rather, the embryos are viable under long-term storage conditions and can be hatched within a few hours. The tests require only 24 h with standard laboratory equipment. Sensitivity levels for 11 representative toxicants were comparable to those reported for five of the standard US Environmental Protection Agency test species requiring continuous culture.
  • A promising new and rapid toxicity screening test was developed, the concept and principles of which are presented. The method consists of visual observation of in vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process, using a fluorescent substrate. Juvenile Daphnia magna was exposed to a toxicant dilution series for 1 h, after which the substrate was added and the enzymatic inhibition was observed visually, using a long-wave UV light. The 1-h EC50 results of 11 pure compounds are presented and compared to the conventional 24- and 48-h Daphnia magna EC50s. All 1-h fluorescence EC50s were of the same order of magnitude andmore » correlated very well with the 24- and 48-h EC50s. The sensitivity and reproducibility of this cost-effective screening test were compared to those of the Microtox[reg sign] test. The scope for application and the potential of this new rapid toxicity screening test are evaluated.« less
  • A new design for acute inhalation toxicity testing was evaluated and compared with results obtained according to OECD guideline 403. The new design consists of a range-finding test, which is compatible with a conventional limit test, and can be followed by determination of a concentration-time-mortality relationship, enabling calculation of LC50 (50% mortality exposure concentration) values. By exposing pairs of rats for different periods of time to about four different test concentrations in a nose-only exposure unit, LT50 (50% mortality exposure time) values were obtained for five pairs of animals per concentration. The mortality data of the approximate 20 time-concentration combinationsmore » were used to calculate the probit relationship. Estimated mortality responses from these probit relations were compared with mortality figures obtained by exposing groups of five male rats and five female rats whole-body according to conventional toxicity testing. In general, there was good correspondence between the estimated and the observed mortality response. In this study, the determination of the concentration-time-mortality relationship takes about the same number of animals (40-50) as the conventional LC50 procedure according to the OECD guideline 403. However, the new method has several additional advantages such as: (A) LC50 values are obtained over a 10-fold range in time, with the potential of decreasing the number of animals used when regulations require acute toxicity data for different periods of exposure. (B) The obtained relationship contains considerably more valuable information for risk assessment than the LC50 value.« less
  • Purpose: To prospectively study acute rectal and urinary reactions from three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer comparing two hypofractionation regimens with standard fractionation (standard). The hypofractionation regimens were designed to avoid more late reactions in the hypofractionation groups than in the standard group, with the advantage of one-half as many treatment sessions. Patients and Materials: A total of 56 nonrandomized patients chose hypofractionation delivered at 3 (n = 22) or 3.15 (n = 34) Gy/fraction, 4 d/wk, to a total dose of 60 or 63 Gy within 5 weeks. A total of 74 patients were contemporarily treatedmore » with standard fractionation at 2 Gy/fraction, 5 d/wk, to a total dose of 76 to 80 Gy. Results: The differences within patients without complications were not statistically significant in the three groups. However, for acute complications of Grade 2 or worse, the Hypo3.15 group had significantly greater (p = 0.001) complication rates (50%) compared with the standard group (17%). The incidence of patients without acute rectal complications was significantly lower for the Hypo3.15 group compared with the Hypo3 and standard groups. The incidence of rectal Grade 2 or greater complications was correspondingly significantly greater for the Hypo3.15 group than for the Hypo3 and standard groups (p < 0.001). The incidence of patients with urinary complications was not significantly different among the three groups. Conclusions: Acute rectal reactions were more frequent and intense in the Hypo3.15 group than in the Hypo3 and standard groups. In our study, 60 Gy at 3 Gy/fraction within 5 weeks resulted in acute toxicity similar to that after standard fractionation.« less