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Title: Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

Abstract

This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Army Biomedical Research and Development Lab., Fort Detrick, MD (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
118064
Report Number(s):
AD-A-294311/6/XAB
TRN: 52751351
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; TOXICITY; TESTING

Citation Formats

Toussaint, M.W., Shedd, T.R., VanDerSchal, W.H., and Leather, G.R.. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Toussaint, M.W., Shedd, T.R., VanDerSchal, W.H., & Leather, G.R.. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests. United States.
Toussaint, M.W., Shedd, T.R., VanDerSchal, W.H., and Leather, G.R.. 1995. "Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_118064,
title = {Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests},
author = {Toussaint, M.W. and Shedd, T.R. and VanDerSchal, W.H. and Leather, G.R.},
abstractNote = {This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1995,
month =
}

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  • This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid andmore » standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.« less
  • Eurytemora affinis, a calanoid copepod, was selected for standard toxicity testing protocol development subsequent to screening 25 resident Chesapeake Bay species including fish, invertebrates, and plants. Eurytemora was selected because of its ecological importance as an essential component in the trophic structure of the estuary, its relative practicability of culturing in the laboratory for year-round availability, and its sensitivity to toxic substances. The standards operating procedures described in this document provide detailed procedures for culturing, holding, and toxicity testing of E. affinis.
  • A standard reference material (SRM 1048) has been developed for use with the cup furnace smoke toxicity method. This SRM is to be used to calibrate the apparatus and to enable the user to have confidence that the method is being conducted in a correct manner and that the equipment is functioning properly. The toxicological results from this SRM should not be used to compare with those of other materials (i.e., to determine if the combustion products of a test material are more or less toxic than those from this SRM). SRM 1048 is an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and is themore » same as SRM 1007B which is used for calibrating the flaming mode of the Smoke Density Chamber test method (ASTM E-662 and NFPA 258).« less
  • This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-47 on Biological Effects and Environmental Fate and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E47.01 on Aquatic Toxicology. Current edition approved Sep. 15, 1991. Published November 1991. Reapproved 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.
  • Toxicological evaluation of forebay and transition area water column (overlying water) and sediment porewater (interstitial water) samples was initiated during the summer of 1990 as part of TVA's Reservoir Vital Signs monitoring. Twenty-four stations were identified for study using acute toxicity screening test methods with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotox{reg sign}) and light emitting bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox{reg sign}). No acute toxicity to rotifers was demonstrated in the first series of tests using water column and sediment samples from the locations selected for monitoring. Sediments from three locations indicated some toxicity based on Microtox{reg sign}, although all EC{sub 50}more » concentrations were greater than 100 percent sample.« less