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Title: Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers

Abstract

It is a well-established fact that geomagnetic storms influence electrical power transmission and distribution systems. Previous cases of such storms in the northern latitudes have resulted in occasional power disruptions, and in some cases, damage to transformers. These effects are caused by a time variation of the earth's magnetic field creating an induced electric field along the surface of the earth. This E-field acts as a voltage source along long power transmission or distribution lines, and if the line is connected to the earth at both ends, a quasi-dc current can flow. This current can cause unwanted saturation in the magnetic cores of transformers in the power system, and this, in turn produces harmonic distortion and transformer heating. This can lead to system upset (shutdown) and possibly transformer burn-out. The detonation of a high altitude nuclear explosion is also known to affect the magnetosphere, producing late-time variations of the earth's magnetic field for several hundreds of seconds. Known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), or E{sub 3}, this environment is of particular concern to electrical power systems in the event of a nuclear attack. Although the MHD-EMP induced currents can be significantly larger in magnitude, they last for a shortermore » period of time than do those from a geomagnetic storm. The effect of this environment compounds the adverse effects of the early-time high altitude EMP (HEMP) environment, posing a potentially serious threat to the electrical system. The present paper documents an experimental program designed to better understand the behavior of distribution-class transformers subjected to quasi-dc current excitation. Given the knowledge of the MHD-EMP-induced current flowing in a long power line, and the transformer response characteristics obtained in this program, it will be possible to make more accurate assessments of the behavior of the overall power system to EMP. 7 refs., 5 figs.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
  2. Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOD; Department of Defense, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
6364419
Report Number(s):
CONF-920223-3
ON: DE92003556
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 1992 hardened electronics and radiation technology (HEART) conference, Albuquerque, NM (United States), 24-28 Feb 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES; TRANSFORMERS; BLAST EFFECTS; ELECTRICAL TESTING; ELECTRIC CURRENTS; ELECTRICAL FAULTS; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS; POWER TRANSMISSION LINES; CURRENTS; ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; EQUIPMENT; EXPLOSIONS; MATERIALS TESTING; NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING; PULSES; RADIATIONS; TESTING; 240200* - Power System Networks, Transmission & Distribution- (1990-); 240400 - Power Transmission & Distribution- Health & Safety- (1990-); 450200 - Military Technology, Weaponry, & National Defense- Nuclear Explosions & Explosives

Citation Formats

McConnell, B W, Barnes, P R, and Tesche, F M. Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers. United States: N. p., 1991. Web.
McConnell, B W, Barnes, P R, & Tesche, F M. Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers. United States.
McConnell, B W, Barnes, P R, and Tesche, F M. Tue . "Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6364419.
@article{osti_6364419,
title = {Experimental determination of the MHD-EMP effects on power distribution transformers},
author = {McConnell, B W and Barnes, P R and Tesche, F M},
abstractNote = {It is a well-established fact that geomagnetic storms influence electrical power transmission and distribution systems. Previous cases of such storms in the northern latitudes have resulted in occasional power disruptions, and in some cases, damage to transformers. These effects are caused by a time variation of the earth's magnetic field creating an induced electric field along the surface of the earth. This E-field acts as a voltage source along long power transmission or distribution lines, and if the line is connected to the earth at both ends, a quasi-dc current can flow. This current can cause unwanted saturation in the magnetic cores of transformers in the power system, and this, in turn produces harmonic distortion and transformer heating. This can lead to system upset (shutdown) and possibly transformer burn-out. The detonation of a high altitude nuclear explosion is also known to affect the magnetosphere, producing late-time variations of the earth's magnetic field for several hundreds of seconds. Known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), or E{sub 3}, this environment is of particular concern to electrical power systems in the event of a nuclear attack. Although the MHD-EMP induced currents can be significantly larger in magnitude, they last for a shorter period of time than do those from a geomagnetic storm. The effect of this environment compounds the adverse effects of the early-time high altitude EMP (HEMP) environment, posing a potentially serious threat to the electrical system. The present paper documents an experimental program designed to better understand the behavior of distribution-class transformers subjected to quasi-dc current excitation. Given the knowledge of the MHD-EMP-induced current flowing in a long power line, and the transformer response characteristics obtained in this program, it will be possible to make more accurate assessments of the behavior of the overall power system to EMP. 7 refs., 5 figs.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6364419}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1991},
month = {1}
}

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