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Title: Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

Abstract

This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. Thesemore » currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
  3. Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOD; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Department of Defense, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5559195
Report Number(s):
ORNL/Sub-90-SG828/1
ON: DE92010365
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES; POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS; BLAST EFFECTS; POWER SYSTEMS; ELECTRIC FIELDS; HYDROMAGNETIC WAVES; LEVELS; MAGNETIC STORMS; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; POWER TRANSMISSION LINES; TRANSFORMERS; VULNERABILITY; WAVE FORMS; ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; EQUIPMENT; EXPLOSIONS; PULSES; RADIATIONS; 240100* - Power Systems- (1990-); 240200 - Power System Networks, Transmission & Distribution- (1990-); 450200 - Military Technology, Weaponry, & National Defense- Nuclear Explosions & Explosives

Citation Formats

Tesche, F. M., Barnes, P. R., and Meliopoulos, A. P.S. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.2172/5559195.
Tesche, F. M., Barnes, P. R., & Meliopoulos, A. P.S. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/5559195
Tesche, F. M., Barnes, P. R., and Meliopoulos, A. P.S. Sat . "Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/5559195. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5559195.
@article{osti_5559195,
title = {Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems},
author = {Tesche, F. M. and Barnes, P. R. and Meliopoulos, A. P.S.},
abstractNote = {This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.},
doi = {10.2172/5559195},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5559195}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1992},
month = {2}
}