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Title: Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems

Abstract

This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. Thesemore » currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. (Tesche (F.M.), Dallas, TX (United States))
  2. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))
  3. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOD; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Department of Defense, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5559195
Report Number(s):
ORNL/Sub-90-SG828/1
ON: DE92010365
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-84OR21400
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES; POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS; BLAST EFFECTS; POWER SYSTEMS; ELECTRIC FIELDS; HYDROMAGNETIC WAVES; LEVELS; MAGNETIC STORMS; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; POWER TRANSMISSION LINES; TRANSFORMERS; VULNERABILITY; WAVE FORMS; ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; EQUIPMENT; EXPLOSIONS; PULSES; RADIATIONS; 240100* - Power Systems- (1990-); 240200 - Power System Networks, Transmission & Distribution- (1990-); 450200 - Military Technology, Weaponry, & National Defense- Nuclear Explosions & Explosives

Citation Formats

Tesche, F.M., Barnes, P.R., and Meliopoulos, A.P.S.. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.2172/5559195.
Tesche, F.M., Barnes, P.R., & Meliopoulos, A.P.S.. Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems. United States. doi:10.2172/5559195.
Tesche, F.M., Barnes, P.R., and Meliopoulos, A.P.S.. 1992. "Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems". United States. doi:10.2172/5559195. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5559195.
@article{osti_5559195,
title = {Magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) interaction with power transmission and distribution systems},
author = {Tesche, F.M. and Barnes, P.R. and Meliopoulos, A.P.S.},
abstractNote = {This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth's surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environment is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.},
doi = {10.2172/5559195},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1992,
month = 2
}

Technical Report:

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  • This report discusses the effects of the late-time high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electrical transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. This environment, known as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP), is a very slowly varying electric field induced in the earth`s surface, similar to the field induced by a geomagnetic storm. It can result in the flow of a quasi-dc current in grounded power lines and in the subsequent magnetic saturation of transformers. This saturation, in turn, causes 6-Hz harmonic distortion and an increase in the reactive power required by generation facilities. This report analyzes and discusses these phenomena. The MHD-EMP environmentmore » is briefly discussed, and a simplified form of the earth-induced electric field is developed for use in a parametric study of transmission line responses. Various field coupling models are described, and calculated results for the responses of both transmission- and distribution-class power lines are presented. These calculated responses are compared with measurements of transformer operation under dc excitation to infer the MHD-EMP response of these power system components. It is found that the MHD-EMP environment would have a marked effect on a power system by inducing up to several hundreds of amperes of quasi-dc current on power lines. These currents will cause transformers to saturate which could result in excessive harmonic generation, voltage swings, and voltage suppression. The design of critical facilities which are required to operate during and after MHD-EMP events will have to be modified in order to mitigate the effects of these abnormal power system conditions.« less
  • A large nuclear detonation at altitudes of several hundred kilometers above the earth distorts the earth`s magnetic field and produces a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). This can adversely affect electrical power systems. In this report, the effects of this nuclear environment on critical facilities connected to the commercial power system are considered. Methods of mitigating the MHD-EMP impacts are investigated, and recommended protection schemes are presented. Guidelines for testing facilities to determine the effects of MHD-EMP and to validate the mitigation methods also are discussed.
  • A large nuclear detonation at altitudes of several hundred kilometers above the earth distorts the earth's magnetic field and produces a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). This can adversely affect electrical power systems. In this report, the effects of this nuclear environment on critical facilities connected to the commercial power system are considered. Methods of mitigating the MHD-EMP impacts are investigated, and recommended protection schemes are presented. Guidelines for testing facilities to determine the effects of MHD-EMP and to validate the mitigation methods also are discussed.
  • In addition to the initial transients designated as fast transient high-altitude EMP (HEMP) and intermediate time EMP, electromagnetic signals are also perceived at times from seconds to hundreds of seconds after a high-altitude nuclear burst. This signal has been defined by the term magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). The MHD-EMP phenomena has been both detected in actual weapon tests and predicted from theoretical models. This volume documents a preliminary research effort to investigate the nature and coupling of the MHD-EMP environments to electric power systems, define the construction of approximate system response network models, and document the development of a unified methodologymore » to assess equipment and systematic vulnerability. The MHD-EMP environment is compared to a qualitatively similar natural event, the electromagnetic environment produced by geomagnetic storms.« less
  • A high altitude nuclear burst, detonated at a height of 50 km or more, causes two types of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) - high altitude EMP (HEMP) and magnetohydrodynamic EMP (MHD-EMP). This high altitude EMP scenario is of principal concern when assessing the effects of EMP on electric power systems, because the total United States can be simultaneously illuminated by HEMP and MHD-EMP can cover a large area of up to several hundred kilometers in diameter. The purpose of this project was first to define typical electrical power system characteristics for EMP analysis, and second, to determine reasonable worst case EMPmore » induced surges on overhead electric power system transmission and distribution lines for reasonable assumptions, using unclassified HEMP and MHD-EMP electric field waveforms.« less