skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: Frequency-resolved optical gating

Abstract

The authors recently introduced a new technique, frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). For directly determining the full intensity I(t) and phase [var phi](t) of a single femtosecond pulse. By using almost any instantaneous nonlinear-optical interaction of two replicas of the ultrashort pulse to be measured, FROG involves measuring the spectrum of the signal pulse as a function of the delay between the replicas. The resulting trace of intensity versus frequency and delay yields an intuitive display of the pulse that is similar to the pulse spectrogram, except that the gate is a function of the pulse to be measured. The problem of inverting the FROG trace to obtain the pulse intensity and phase can also be considered a complex two-dimensional phase-retrieval problem. As a result, the FROG trace yields, in principle, an essentially unique pulse intensity and phase. It is shown that this is also the case in practice. An iterative-Fourier-transform algorithm is presented for inverting the FROG trace. The algorithm is unusual in its use of a novel constraint: the mathematical form of the signal field. Without the use of a support constraint, the algorithm performs quite well in practice, even for pulses with serious phase distortions and for experimentalmore » data with noise, although it occasionally stagnates when pulses with large intensity fluctuations are used. 49 refs., 15 figs.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Southwest Sciences, Inc., Santa Fe, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6340064
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of the Optical Society of America, Part A: Optics and Image Science; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10:5; Journal ID: ISSN 0740-3232
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES; NONLINEAR OPTICS; PHASE SHIFT; ALGORITHMS; RADIANT FLUX DENSITY; FOURIER TRANSFORMATION; ITERATIVE METHODS; THEORETICAL DATA; CALCULATION METHODS; DATA; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; FLUX DENSITY; INFORMATION; INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS; MATHEMATICAL LOGIC; NUMERICAL DATA; OPTICS; PULSES; RADIATIONS; TRANSFORMATIONS; 420200* - Engineering- Facilities, Equipment, & Techniques; 440600 - Optical Instrumentation- (1990-); 990200 - Mathematics & Computers

Citation Formats

Trebino, R, and Kane, D J. Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: Frequency-resolved optical gating. United States: N. p., 1993. Web. doi:10.1364/JOSAA.10.001101.
Trebino, R, & Kane, D J. Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: Frequency-resolved optical gating. United States. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.10.001101
Trebino, R, and Kane, D J. 1993. "Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: Frequency-resolved optical gating". United States. https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.10.001101.
@article{osti_6340064,
title = {Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: Frequency-resolved optical gating},
author = {Trebino, R and Kane, D J},
abstractNote = {The authors recently introduced a new technique, frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). For directly determining the full intensity I(t) and phase [var phi](t) of a single femtosecond pulse. By using almost any instantaneous nonlinear-optical interaction of two replicas of the ultrashort pulse to be measured, FROG involves measuring the spectrum of the signal pulse as a function of the delay between the replicas. The resulting trace of intensity versus frequency and delay yields an intuitive display of the pulse that is similar to the pulse spectrogram, except that the gate is a function of the pulse to be measured. The problem of inverting the FROG trace to obtain the pulse intensity and phase can also be considered a complex two-dimensional phase-retrieval problem. As a result, the FROG trace yields, in principle, an essentially unique pulse intensity and phase. It is shown that this is also the case in practice. An iterative-Fourier-transform algorithm is presented for inverting the FROG trace. The algorithm is unusual in its use of a novel constraint: the mathematical form of the signal field. Without the use of a support constraint, the algorithm performs quite well in practice, even for pulses with serious phase distortions and for experimental data with noise, although it occasionally stagnates when pulses with large intensity fluctuations are used. 49 refs., 15 figs.},
doi = {10.1364/JOSAA.10.001101},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6340064}, journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America, Part A: Optics and Image Science; (United States)},
issn = {0740-3232},
number = ,
volume = 10:5,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {5}
}