skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Phototoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum

Abstract

The effects of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the growth of the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum in three light regimens were examined. In gold fluorescent light, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) at 12 mg/liter (48 ..mu..mole/liter), benz(a)anthracene (BaA) at 40 mg/liter (175 ..mu..mole/liter), anthracene (A) at 40 mg/liter (224 ..mu..mole/liter), and 13 metabolites of BaP each at 40 ..mu..g/liter had no effect on algal growth. In cool-white fluorescent light, 30% inhibition of algal growth occurred with 0.1 ..mu..mole/liter BaP, 8.0 ..mu..mole/liter BaA, and 40 ..mu..mole/liter A. BaP at 0.16 mg/liter (0.64 ..mu..mole/liter) totally inhibited growth. BaP concentrations an order of magnitude lower inhibited algal growth in fluorescent blacklight. In cool-white light, 5 of 13 metabolites of BaP (each 40 ..mu..g/liter) inhibited algal growth; 3,6-quinone; 6-hydroxy; 9-hydroxy; 3-hydroxy; and 1,6-quinone. Based on these results, PAHs and metabolites of BaP are selectively phototoxic to S. capricornutum due to the incident light intensity below 550 nm.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH
OSTI Identifier:
6238184
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environ. Res.; (United States); Journal Volume: 35:1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ANTHRACENE; TOXICITY; BENZANTHRACENE; BENZOPYRENE; VISIBLE RADIATION; RESPONSE MODIFYING FACTORS; ALGAE; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; GROWTH; INHIBITION; METABOLITES; AROMATICS; CONDENSED AROMATICS; DATA; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; HYDROCARBONS; INFORMATION; NUMERICAL DATA; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PLANTS; RADIATIONS; 560303* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology- Plants- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Cody, T.E., Radike, M.J., and Warshawsky, D.. Phototoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. United States: N. p., 1984. Web. doi:10.1016/0013-9351(84)90119-1.
Cody, T.E., Radike, M.J., & Warshawsky, D.. Phototoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. United States. doi:10.1016/0013-9351(84)90119-1.
Cody, T.E., Radike, M.J., and Warshawsky, D.. 1984. "Phototoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum". United States. doi:10.1016/0013-9351(84)90119-1.
@article{osti_6238184,
title = {Phototoxicity of benzo(a)pyrene in the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum},
author = {Cody, T.E. and Radike, M.J. and Warshawsky, D.},
abstractNote = {The effects of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the growth of the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum in three light regimens were examined. In gold fluorescent light, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) at 12 mg/liter (48 ..mu..mole/liter), benz(a)anthracene (BaA) at 40 mg/liter (175 ..mu..mole/liter), anthracene (A) at 40 mg/liter (224 ..mu..mole/liter), and 13 metabolites of BaP each at 40 ..mu..g/liter had no effect on algal growth. In cool-white fluorescent light, 30% inhibition of algal growth occurred with 0.1 ..mu..mole/liter BaP, 8.0 ..mu..mole/liter BaA, and 40 ..mu..mole/liter A. BaP at 0.16 mg/liter (0.64 ..mu..mole/liter) totally inhibited growth. BaP concentrations an order of magnitude lower inhibited algal growth in fluorescent blacklight. In cool-white light, 5 of 13 metabolites of BaP (each 40 ..mu..g/liter) inhibited algal growth; 3,6-quinone; 6-hydroxy; 9-hydroxy; 3-hydroxy; and 1,6-quinone. Based on these results, PAHs and metabolites of BaP are selectively phototoxic to S. capricornutum due to the incident light intensity below 550 nm.},
doi = {10.1016/0013-9351(84)90119-1},
journal = {Environ. Res.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 35:1,
place = {United States},
year = 1984,
month =
}
  • Algal growth inhibition tests were performed with the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum and three {sup 14}C-labeled polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Toxicity was related to external aqueous concentrations and additionally to internal algal bound PCB concentrations. Estimates of the concentrations at 50% effectiveness (EC50s) for the three PCB congeners ranged within a factor of 17 when based on measured aqueous concentrations. When based on internal toxicant concentrations the corresponding range was 6.7 to 14.3 mmol/kg wet weight. Thus, changing the basis from external to internal concentrations reduced the range by almost one order of magnitude. Additional toxic cell concentrations ofmore » five monoaromatic compounds and S. capricornutum were calculated from literature data to be in the same order of magnitude as the experimental toxic cell concentrations for the PCBs, whereas EC50 values for all substances ranged by more than four orders of magnitude. The experimental and calculated data indicate that observed differences in the estimated EC50 values were mainly due to differences in bioconcentration behavior rather than to different intrinsic toxicities. These findings are in agreement with the concept of baseline toxicity, meaning that a number of hydrophobic organics exerts their acute toxicity by one relatively nonspecific mode of action.« less
  • In the present study, the impact on membrane integrity of the aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and three xylene isomers (para, meta, and ortho), collectively referred to as BTEX, was investigated using the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. BTEX are water-soluble components of crude oil and gasoline which are known to be toxic to aquatic life. Their impact on membrane integrity was determined by monitoring the release of {sup 14}C-labeled photosynthates from algal cells exposed to benzene and o-xylene. An alternative method utilized a fluorescent dye, uranin (fluorescein sodium salt), which is commonly used as a vital stain. The purpose ofmore » the present study was to evaluate the usefulness and sensitivity of uranin staining as an indicator of the impact of organic pollutants on membrane integrity. The sensitivity of the uranin staining technique was compared to the concentration of BTEX required to inhibit algal growth.« less
  • Certain PAHs are photosensitizers and in the presence of solar radiation can cause toxicity to aquatic plants and animals. The photoinduced toxicity of anthracene to the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum was assessed by the use of flow cytometry to measure cell size, cellular chlorophyll concentration, and cell viability. Anthracene was slightly toxic in the absence of UV-A radiation. The detection of the direct toxicity of anthracene in this study at a concentration of 19 [mu]g/L anthracene resulted from the use of sensitive flow cytometric measures. There was a significant interaction between anthracene and UV-A radiation, which, in combination, caused significantmore » toxic effects on Selenastrum capricornutum. The most sensitive flow cytometric measure of toxicity was the stress index (SI), which was predictive of longer term effects on cell growth. The 28-h EC50 and EC10 and for the SI for Selenastrum capricornutum were 16.1 and 8.3 [mu]g/L anthracene, respectively, at 125 [mu]W/cm[sup 2] UV-A. All combinations for anthracene and UV-A that inhibited algal growth also caused a significantly greater number of nonviable cells. The flow cytometric methods used in this study proved to be sensitive, predictive measures of the direct and photo-induced toxicity of anthracene and UV-A radiation to Selenastrum capricornutum.« less
  • The deposition of mercury in the environment continued unchecked until recently when accumulations of this toxicant were found to be potentially dangerous to man. Since outbreaks of mercury poisoning among people were first positively diagnosed in the early 1960s, Japan, Canada, Sweden and the US have actively engaged in research and established regulations to prevent further human poisoning. Much research has been devoted to assessment of the accumulation of mercury in fish and aquatic birds which may be consumed directly by man. Yet relatively little work has been directed at mercury uptake by lower aquatic organisms. At the base ofmore » the aquatic food web are the algae from which the majority of non-photosynthetic aquatic organisms derive most of their energy. It is therefore important to explore the pathways by which mercury may enter the food web at this lower trophic level. In the present study, laboratory cultures of the unicellular, fresh-water, green alga Selenastrum capricornutum were utilized to examine uptake of inorganic mercury. Selenastrum was chosen as the test organism due to its wide natural distribution and because it has previously received intensive use as a bioassay organism in limnological and ecological studies. 3 references, 2 figures.« less
  • The alga Selenastrum capricornutum Printz is used to investigate the potential of natural lake water to reduce cadmium toxicity. The two lakes involved differ in trophic status and in concentration and composition of dissolved organic matter, one being a typical dystrophic bog lake, the other a less humus influenced, eutrophic lake. In the dystrophic lake, the toxic effect is determined mainly by the free cadmium activity. In the eutrophic, less humus influenced lake, however, the toxic effect shows considerable seasonal variations with a toxicity far exceeding what would be expected according to the estimated free ion activity during summer. Itmore » is hypothesized that qualitative changes in the composition of the dissolved organic matter during the production period are responsible for this effect.« less