skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants

Abstract

An attempt has been made to condense the great volume of literature for many different air pollutants and from many different plant systems. Only those responses that have been reported for several species are emphasized and the discussion is limited to responses obtained with intact plants. The general outline provides a focus; uptake becomes the crucial aspect of whether or not plants are injured by air pollutants. Pollutants must get into the plant to cause injury and the primary portal of entry is through the open stomata. Once into the plant, pollutants alter biochemical reactions, resulting in cell injury and causing economic losses for horticulturists. The authors have developed this outline for the pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), which are the most common and and most damaging gaseous pollutants in the ambient environment.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
OSTI Identifier:
6130138
Report Number(s):
CONF-8208184-
Journal ID: CODEN: HJHSA
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: HortScience; (United States); Journal Volume: 18:5; Conference: Symposium on impact of world atmospheric modification on plant growth and productivity, Ames, IA, USA, 11 Aug 1982
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; HYDROFLUORIC ACID; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; FOLIAR UPTAKE; NITROGEN DIOXIDE; OZONE; PEROXYACETYL NITRATE; PLANTS; INJURIES; SULFUR DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION; BIOCHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; ECONOMICS; HORTICULTURE; REVIEWS; STOMATA; AGRICULTURE; CHALCOGENIDES; DOCUMENT TYPES; ESTERS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INDUSTRY; INORGANIC ACIDS; KINETICS; NITRATES; NITRIC ACID ESTERS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NITROGEN OXIDES; OPENINGS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POLLUTION; REACTION KINETICS; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR OXIDES; UPTAKE 560303* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology-- Plants-- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Tibbitts, T.W., and Kobriger, J.M.. Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants. United States: N. p., 1983. Web.
Tibbitts, T.W., & Kobriger, J.M.. Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants. United States.
Tibbitts, T.W., and Kobriger, J.M.. 1983. "Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6130138,
title = {Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants},
author = {Tibbitts, T.W. and Kobriger, J.M.},
abstractNote = {An attempt has been made to condense the great volume of literature for many different air pollutants and from many different plant systems. Only those responses that have been reported for several species are emphasized and the discussion is limited to responses obtained with intact plants. The general outline provides a focus; uptake becomes the crucial aspect of whether or not plants are injured by air pollutants. Pollutants must get into the plant to cause injury and the primary portal of entry is through the open stomata. Once into the plant, pollutants alter biochemical reactions, resulting in cell injury and causing economic losses for horticulturists. The authors have developed this outline for the pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), which are the most common and and most damaging gaseous pollutants in the ambient environment.},
doi = {},
journal = {HortScience; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 18:5,
place = {United States},
year = 1983,
month =
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • The major pollutants affecting plants are identified as ozone, PAN, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ethylene, and fluorides. Variations in cultivar sensitivity for several species are tabulated. Growth and yield response to pollutants are also tabulated. Research needs to further understanding of the details of plant response to air pollutants are defined. 100 references, 6 tables.
  • Aquatic ecosystems receive a wide range of potentially toxic contaminants. One approach to measure the environmental impact of these compounds is to perform costly and detailed experimental investigations. A quick and cost-effective alternative is to predict the likely effects of chemical contaminants using quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) which relate effects to chemical structure. One problem with the predictive approach is that QSARs can be established and used only for compounds with a common mode of toxic action. It is therefore important that a compound is assigned to the correct mode of action and that the correct QSAR is used.more » Two kinds of approach can be used to address this problem. In the first a compound is assigned to a class based on responses observed during experimental tests. The other approach uses chemical structural information e.g. the OECD method where compounds are classed as inert, less inert, reactive or specific acting based on chemical structure. The objective of this study was to determine whether compounds could be classified into one of the four OECD classes solely on the basis of their physico-chemical properties. Approximately 800 compounds were assigned to an OECD class and a range of properties were calculated. Discriminant analysis demonstrated that a large proportion of these compounds could be classified correctly based on two properties, namely a molecular connectivity index ({sup 2}{sub x}) and an electronic parameter (E{sub HOMO}).« less
  • Some topics discussed are as follows: correlations between DNA damage and carcinogenesis; prereplication repair of chemically induced DNA damage; strand break repair in chemical carcinogenesis; postreplication repair in chemical carcinogenesis; and biologic assessment of environmental pollutants. (HLW)
  • Sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride are the main industrial pollutants causing wide spread damage to plants; nitrogen oxides, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, chlorine or hydrochloric acid, bromine and iodine produce effects which are limited to the industrial area. Acid vapors such as sulfuric or nitric acid exhibit their action within the area close to the emission source. Depending on the concentration of pollutants and on the duration of their action, plant damage can be acute, chronic or latent. Acute damage is produced by high air pollutant concentration following short time exposure and leaf necrosis, general weakening of plant vitality, growth depression,more » sometimes, ending in plant death, constitute its main effects. Chronic plant damage occurs in areas exposed to long-lasting low pollutant concentrations; chloroplast damage associated with inhibition of photosynthesis and overall impairment of metabolism constitute the main results of such exposure. Latent damage is considered to be a precursor of chronic damage. Alterations of soil structure, its pH and nutritional element content due to the cumulative action of pollutants constitute the indirect damage to plants. Diagnosis of plant damage from air pollutants can be made visually, by chemical analysis of air and plant samples and by biological tests. Experimental evaluation of pollutant action on plants in special exposure chambers or on free field should constitute one of the basic tools of research in this field. Included are descriptions of such facilities and discussions on possibilities to prevent plant damage from pollutants by special soil treatments. Reference is made to a bibliography on the subject included elsewhere.« less