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Title: Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis

Abstract

Survival, behavior, and reproduction of Hydra viridis was studied in animals treated with the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture (PCB), Aroclor 1254. PCB was administered as a component of the culture medium (artificial pond water) in concentrations varying from 0.2 mg/l to 100.0 mg/l PCB. Reagent grade acetone was employed as a carrier for the PCB due to its low solubility in water. Control animals were maintained in a 250.0 mg/l acetone culture medium. Aroclor 1254 was lethally toxic to H. viridis with concentrations of 20.0 mg/l producing 100% mortality after a 24 hour exposure. Sublethal PCB concentrations as low as 2.0 mg/l caused lethargic behavior and decreased feeding. Reproduction was suppressed in concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/l, and morphological abnormalities occurred at PCB levels of 2.0 mg/l or greater.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Tennessee State Univ., Nashville
OSTI Identifier:
5850912
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Tenn. Acad. Sci.; (United States); Journal Volume: 56:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AROMATICS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; TOXICITY; ORGANIC CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS; HYDRA; REPRODUCTION; CNIDARIA; ECOSYSTEMS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS 560304* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology-- Invertebrates-- (-1987); 500200 -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Adams, J.A., and Lawson, W.G. Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis. United States: N. p., 1981. Web.
Adams, J.A., & Lawson, W.G. Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis. United States.
Adams, J.A., and Lawson, W.G. 1981. "Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5850912,
title = {Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis},
author = {Adams, J.A. and Lawson, W.G.},
abstractNote = {Survival, behavior, and reproduction of Hydra viridis was studied in animals treated with the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture (PCB), Aroclor 1254. PCB was administered as a component of the culture medium (artificial pond water) in concentrations varying from 0.2 mg/l to 100.0 mg/l PCB. Reagent grade acetone was employed as a carrier for the PCB due to its low solubility in water. Control animals were maintained in a 250.0 mg/l acetone culture medium. Aroclor 1254 was lethally toxic to H. viridis with concentrations of 20.0 mg/l producing 100% mortality after a 24 hour exposure. Sublethal PCB concentrations as low as 2.0 mg/l caused lethargic behavior and decreased feeding. Reproduction was suppressed in concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/l, and morphological abnormalities occurred at PCB levels of 2.0 mg/l or greater.},
doi = {},
journal = {J. Tenn. Acad. Sci.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 56:4,
place = {United States},
year = 1981,
month =
}
  • The hepatic tumor-promoting activity of a commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, Aroclor 1254 (AR 1254), with and without its intrinsic polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) impurities, was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley noninbred albino rats were treated with 66 ..mu..g diethylnitrosamine (DENA)/ml drinking water for 5 weeks and subsequently given a control diet or a diet supplemented (100 ppM for 18 wk) with either AR 1254 or AR 1254 from which the PCDF moieties were removed (AR 1254-PCDF). Of those animals receiving DENA alone, 16% exhibited hepatocellular carcinomas. Of those rats treated with DENA followed by administration of AR 1254 or AR 1254-PCDF, 64 ormore » 84%, respectively, developed hepatocellular carcinomas. Thus promotion with either AR 1254 or AR 1254-PCDF significantly (P < 0.05) increased the incidence of DENA-initiated hepatocellular carcinomas. Administration of AR 1254 or AR 1254-PCDF alone did not include hepatic tumors. Therefore, PCDF impurities were not necessary for the promoting activity of AR 1254.« less
  • Numerous studies have documented the general toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and a sizeable literature has accumulated concerning the toxic effects of PCBs on a variety of homeostatic systems. However, current information regarding the effects of PCBs on rhythmic endocrine function is quite limited. Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine whether circadian periodicity in pituitary-adrenal function is affected by exposure to PCBs.
  • Prior studies have shown that Aroclor 1254 (PCB) differentially alters the incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) induced hepatocellular carcinomas in trout, depending upon the time of PCB administration relative to AFB/sub 1/ exposure. When fed simultaneously with AFB/sub 1/, PCB inhibits carcinoma incidence. The effect of AFB/sub 1/ and PCB dose on this inhibition was investigated. Duplicate tanks of 100 rainbow trout were fed AFB/sub 1/ at concentrations of 1, 4, or 8 ppb, either with or without the addition of 50 ppm PCB. Other groups were fed 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ + 5 ppm PCB, 50 ppmmore » PCB alone, or control diet alone. After 9 and 12 mo, 40 and 60 fish per tank, respectively, were sampled to determine the incidence of liver tumors. The results show a parallel inhibition of the AFB/sub 1/-tumor dose-response curve by the presence of 50 ppm PCB. Fish fed 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ + 5 ppm PCB showed slight inhibition in response when compared with 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ alone. Also, livers from fish fed 50 ppm PCB were used to prepare S20 for use in the Salmonella mutagenesis assay. These livers were less efficient in converting AFB/sub 1/ to a mutagen, when compared to control S20. The AFB/sub 1/-mutagenesis dose-response curve was again shifted parallel to the right of the curve generated using control S20. These results suggest that the inhibitory action is at least partly at the level of carcinogen activation. The finding of parallel, as opposed to proportional, inhibition with varying carcinogen exposure for certain classes of inhibitors may have important implications for inhibition of environmental carcinogenesis at low levels of carcinogen exposure. 26 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.« less
  • Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by anaerobic microbial dechlorination occurring naturally in the subsurface and in engineered systems results in mixtures of lower-chlorinated, primarily ortho-substituted biphenyls. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this process of bacterial dechlorination results in a mixture that differs in biological activity from that of the parent PCB mixture. Two biological assays sensitive to the action of ortho-substituted PCBs were employed: insulin release by RINm5F cells, and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) production by rat neutrophils. The PCB mixtures Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254 were incubated for nine months with microbes from PCB-contaminatedmore » sites (Silver Lake, MA, USA, or River Raisin, MI, USA), and the products of dechlorination were then extracted. Exposure of RINm5F cells to dechlorinated Aroclor 1242 or 1254 product mixtures caused an increase in insulin release similar to the hormone release from cells exposed to nondechlorinated Aroclors. When tested alone, several of the major products identified in the dechlorination mixture (i.e., 2,2{prime}, 4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2{prime}, 4-trichlorobiphenyl [TCB], 2,3{prime}, 4-TCB, 2,3{prime}, 5-TCB, and 2,2{prime}-dichlorobiphenyl) caused an increase in insulin release. In studies using neutrophils isolated from rat peritoneum, the amount of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} produced on exposure to product mixtures resulting from dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was not different from the amount produced in nondechlorinated controls. The product mixture resulting from Aroclor 1254 dechlorination by organisms from River Raisin increased generation of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} relative to the parent Aroclor. Taken together, these results suggest that anaerobic dechlorination of Aroclor mixtures of PCBs does not reduce the biological activities associated with lightly chlorinated and ortho-substituted PCBs. This observation has implications for the usefulness of PCB bioremediation efforts that involve only anaerobic dechlorination.« less
  • The polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, Aroclor 1254, is a powerful inducer of both cytochromes P-450 and P-448 exhibiting the catalytic properties of both cytochromes in the liver. Addition of Aroclor 1254 to hepatic microsomes produces a type I difference spectrum. When administered to rats, the hemeprotein induced by Aroclor 1254 displayed spectral properties which are a combination of the spectral properties of the two cytochromes. The catalytic properties of the induced hemeproteins are a combination of the catalytic properties of cytochrome P-450 induced by phenobarbital and of cytochrome P-448 induced by 3-methylcholanthrene in rats. The biphenyl mixture markedly enhanced the cytochromemore » P-450-associated enzymes, including the ethylmorphine and benzphetamine N-demethylases and the hexobarbital oxidative pathway. Similarly, the cytochrome P-448 enzymic activities, including the hydroxylation of benzo(a)pyrene and of zoxazolamine were greatly enhanced. Aroclor 1254 also increased cytochrome b/sub 5/ and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of liver microsomes. Enhancement of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity occurred in nonhepatic tissues, including lung, kidney, adrenals, intestine, and testis. Acute exposure of rats to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a small but significant induction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase and inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase but no significant accumulation of porphyrins in the liver. These results clearly demonstrate that the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, Aroclor 1254, possesses the inducing properties of the two main classes of microsomal enzyme inducers, namely phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene.« less