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Title: Linearizing the joint torque characteristics of an electric direct-drive robot for high performance control of in-contact operations

Abstract

Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command of the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercial applications, a practical methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree-of-freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5828820
Report Number(s):
SAND-91-1669C; CONF-920540-3
ON: DE91018799
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-76DP00789
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 1992 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) international conference on robotics and automation, Nice (France), 10-15 May 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; MANIPULATORS; TORQUE; ROBOTS; ALGORITHMS; COMPUTERIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS; DEGREES OF FREEDOM; ELECTRIC MOTORS; FEEDBACK; JOINTS; CONTROL SYSTEMS; EQUIPMENT; LABORATORY EQUIPMENT; MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT; MATHEMATICAL LOGIC; MOTORS; ON-LINE CONTROL SYSTEMS; ON-LINE SYSTEMS; REMOTE HANDLING EQUIPMENT; 420203* - Engineering- Handling Equipment & Procedures

Citation Formats

Muir, P.F.. Linearizing the joint torque characteristics of an electric direct-drive robot for high performance control of in-contact operations. United States: N. p., 1992. Web.
Muir, P.F.. Linearizing the joint torque characteristics of an electric direct-drive robot for high performance control of in-contact operations. United States.
Muir, P.F.. Wed . "Linearizing the joint torque characteristics of an electric direct-drive robot for high performance control of in-contact operations". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5828820,
title = {Linearizing the joint torque characteristics of an electric direct-drive robot for high performance control of in-contact operations},
author = {Muir, P.F.},
abstractNote = {Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command of the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercial applications, a practical methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree-of-freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1992},
month = {Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1992}
}

Conference:
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  • Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependentmore » upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.« less
  • Many emerging high-performance robot control algorithms require the command of the joint torques; yet no known commercial robots provide such a capability. In this paper, we describe the design, development, testing and application of a VMEbus-based torque linearizing joint interface board (JIB). One JIB resides between the robot control processor and each joint motor amplifier. The JIB provides the control processor with the capability to read the motor position and apply accurate motor torques. The torque command capability derives from the application of a 128k {times} 8 EPROM lookup table for each motor phase. Because joint motor torque is dependentmore » upon the torque command and the motor position, the hardware is designed to utilize the torque command and the current motor position as the address to retrieve the proper pulse-width for the PWM motor amplifier. The table look-up cycle operates independently of the robot controller at a 40KHz rate to provide constant joint torque as the motor rotates. We identify the proper table entries by an automated in situ data collection procedure. Static torque generation results show that the torque deviations are reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for each of the three direct-drive motors (two are variable reluctance motors and one is brushless DC) on an AdeptTwo robot. These torque deviations are reduced below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. The torque deviations of the non-direct-drive joint are reduced by 50%. Dynamic robot edge following experiments show that the robot speed of operation can be more than doubled for a given applied force accuracy by utilizing the joint torque linearizing boards. 8 refs.« less
  • Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage, current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercialmore » applications, an methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree of freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The commercial robot controller is replaced by a VME-based system incorporating special purpose hardware and firmware programmed from experimental data. The performance improvement is experimentally measured and graphically displayed using three-dimensional plots of torque vs command vs position. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. Further, the torque deviation of the direct-drive joints drops below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • a new instantaneous torque-control strategy is presented for high-performance control of a permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor. In order to deal with the torque pulsating problem of a PM synchronous motor in a low-speed region, new torque estimation and control techniques are proposed. The linkage flux of a PM synchronous motor is estimated using a model reference adaptive system technique, and the developed torque is instantaneously controlled by the proposed torque controller combining a variable structure control (VSC) with a space-vector pulse-width modulation (PWM). The proposed control provides the advantage of reducing the torque pulsation caused by the nonsinusoidal fluxmore » distribution. This control strategy is applied to the high-torque PM synchronous motor drive system for direct-drive applications and implemented by using a software of the digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320C30. The simulations and experiments are carried out for this system, and the results well demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control.« less