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Title: Converting a commercial electric direct-drive robot to operate from joint torque commands

Abstract

Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage, current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercial applications, an methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree of freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The commercial robot controller is replaced by a VME-based system incorporating special purpose hardware and firmware programmed from experimental data. The performance improvement is experimentally measured and graphically displayed using three-dimensional plots of torque vs command vs position. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from asmore » much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. Further, the torque deviation of the direct-drive joints drops below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5168590
Report Number(s):
SAND-91-1548
ON: DE92000611
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-76DP00789
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; ROBOTS; CONTROL; ALGORITHMS; COMPUTERIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS; ELECTRIC MOTORS; JOINTS; MODIFICATIONS; TORQUE; CONTROL SYSTEMS; MATHEMATICAL LOGIC; MOTORS; 420200* - Engineering- Facilities, Equipment, & Techniques; 990200 - Mathematics & Computers

Citation Formats

Muir, P F. Converting a commercial electric direct-drive robot to operate from joint torque commands. United States: N. p., 1991. Web. doi:10.2172/5168590.
Muir, P F. Converting a commercial electric direct-drive robot to operate from joint torque commands. United States. doi:10.2172/5168590.
Muir, P F. Mon . "Converting a commercial electric direct-drive robot to operate from joint torque commands". United States. doi:10.2172/5168590. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5168590.
@article{osti_5168590,
title = {Converting a commercial electric direct-drive robot to operate from joint torque commands},
author = {Muir, P F},
abstractNote = {Many robot control algorithms for high performance in-contact operations including hybrid force/position, stiffness control and impedance control approaches require the command the joint torques. However, most commercially available robots do not provide joint torque command capabilities. The joint command at the user level is typically position or velocity and at the control developer level is voltage, current, or pulse-width, and the torque generated is a nonlinear function of the command and joint position. To enable the application of high performance in-contact control algorithms to commercially available robots, and thereby facilitate technology transfer from the robot control research community to commercial applications, an methodology has been developed to linearize the torque characteristics of electric motor-amplifier combinations. A four degree of freedom Adept 2 robot, having pulse-width modulation amplifiers and both variable reluctance and brushless DC motors, is converted to operate from joint torque commands to demonstrate the methodology. The commercial robot controller is replaced by a VME-based system incorporating special purpose hardware and firmware programmed from experimental data. The performance improvement is experimentally measured and graphically displayed using three-dimensional plots of torque vs command vs position. The average percentage torque deviation over the command and position ranges is reduced from as much as 76% to below 5% for the direct-drive joints 1, 2 and 4 and is cut by one half in the remaining ball-screw driven joint 3. Further, the torque deviation of the direct-drive joints drops below 2.5% if only the upper 90% of the torque range is considered. 23 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.},
doi = {10.2172/5168590},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1991},
month = {7}
}