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Title: Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors

Abstract

A brief account of the presentations and discussions at the Late Effects Workshop on Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors held in conjunction with the 29th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Reserch Society in Minneapolis, MN, on May 32, 1981 is presented. The following five papers are briefly reviewed: 1)Radiobiological significance of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data by V.P. Bond; 2)Revised Dose Estimates at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by W.E. Loewe; 3)Review of dosimetry for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors by G.D. Kerr; 4)Ichiban: numberoriginal studies, by J. Auxier; and 5)NCRP's involvement in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Dosimetry, by H.O. Wyckoff. (JMT)

Authors:
 [1];
  1. (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5676867
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Radiat. Res.; (United States); Journal Volume: 88:3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; A-BOMB SURVIVORS; DOSIMETRY; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; HIROSHIMA; NAGASAKI; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; ASIA; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; EXPLOSIONS; HUMAN POPULATIONS; JAPAN; POPULATIONS; RADIATION EFFECTS; WEAPONS; 560151* - Radiation Effects on Animals- Man; 450200 - Military Technology, Weaponry, & National Defense- Nuclear Explosions & Explosives

Citation Formats

Sinclair, W.K., and Failla, P. Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors. United States: N. p., 1981. Web. doi:10.2307/3575633.
Sinclair, W.K., & Failla, P. Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors. United States. doi:10.2307/3575633.
Sinclair, W.K., and Failla, P. 1981. "Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors". United States. doi:10.2307/3575633.
@article{osti_5676867,
title = {Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors},
author = {Sinclair, W.K. and Failla, P.},
abstractNote = {A brief account of the presentations and discussions at the Late Effects Workshop on Dosimetry of the Atomic Bomb Survivors held in conjunction with the 29th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Reserch Society in Minneapolis, MN, on May 32, 1981 is presented. The following five papers are briefly reviewed: 1)Radiobiological significance of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki data by V.P. Bond; 2)Revised Dose Estimates at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by W.E. Loewe; 3)Review of dosimetry for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors by G.D. Kerr; 4)Ichiban: numberoriginal studies, by J. Auxier; and 5)NCRP's involvement in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Dosimetry, by H.O. Wyckoff. (JMT)},
doi = {10.2307/3575633},
journal = {Radiat. Res.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 88:3,
place = {United States},
year = 1981,
month =
}
  • An up-to-date review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors was recently requested by the National Council on Radiation Protection through the US Department of Energy. The primary purpose of the review was to determine if the large leukemia risk found by Rossi and Mays at low neutron exposure levels in Hiroshima was real or if it was the result of a bias in the current T65D system of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors. The possibility of a bias existed because the Nagasaki and Hiroshima weapons were of radically different design and construction. This article summarizes and discusses resultsmore » of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and gamma-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Other special studies that are now under way to complete the review are also discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency.« less
  • This report summarizes the present state of knowledge in dosimetry of the survivors of the bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Data on the physical factors involv in the two cities and on attenuation of radiation by vario shielding situations are presented. This information is being used to estimate a tentative radiation dose to individual atomic bomb survivors. lt should be emphasized the many important problems remain to be solved before accurate doses can be assigned to individual survivors. Such information will greatly atrengthen the investigation of biologic consequences of instantaneous doses of and neutron irradiation in man. (auth)
  • This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1983 (93.4%) of the 2124 atomic bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. The DS86 kerma neutron component for Hiroshima survivors is much smaller than its comparable T65DR component, but still 4.2-fold higher (0.38 Gy at 6 Gy) than that in Nagasaki (0.09 Gy at 6 Gy). Thus, if the eye is especially sensitive to neutrons, there may yet be some useful information onmore » their effects, particularly in Hiroshima. The dose-response relationship has been evaluated as a function of the separately estimated gamma-ray and neutron doses. Among several different dose-response models without and with two thresholds, we have selected as the best model the one with the smallest x2 or the largest log likelihood value associated with the goodness of fit. The best fit is a linear gamma-linear neutron relationship which assumes different thresholds for the two types of radiation. Both gamma and neutron regression coefficients for the best fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated DS86 eye organ dose.« less
  • In the spring of 1986 the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) received a new atomic bomb dosimetry system. This report presents the comparisons of leukemia and nonleukemia cancer mortality risk estimates under the old and new dosimetries. In terms of total kerma (essentially whole-body gamma plus neutron exposure), risk estimates for both classes of cancer are 75-85% higher with the new dosimetry. This and other summary comparisons allow for possible nonlinearity at high estimated doses. Changes are also considered in relation to organ doses and assumptions about the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons. Without regard to RBE, the riskmore » estimates for total organ dose are essentially unchanged by the dosimetry revision. However, with increasing assumed values of RBE, the estimated low-LET risk decreases much less rapidly under the new dosimetry, due to the smaller neutron component. Thus at an assumed constant RBE of 10, for example, the effect of the dosimetry revision is to increase organ dose risk estimates, relative to those based on the old dosimetry, by 30% for nonleukemia and 80% for leukemia. At an RBE of 20 these increases are 72 and 136%, respectively. A number of other issues are discussed. The city difference in dose is no longer statistically significant, even at an RBE of one. Estimation of RBE is even less feasible with new dosimetry. There is substantial question of the linearity in dose response, in the sense of a leveling off at higher doses. Finally, some indication is given of how risks estimated from this dosimetry and the current data may compare to widely used estimates based largely on the RERF data with the previous dosimetry.« less