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Title: Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat

Abstract

Radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats, which is characterized by marked ascites accompanied by liver necrosis, fibrosis, and vein lesions, is described in this study. These adverse sequelae are produced within 30 days after irradiation if there is surgical removal of two-thirds of the liver immediately after whole-liver irradiation. The LD/sub 50/30/ day and median survival time after liver irradiation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy is 24 Gy and 17 days, respectively. Death is preceded by reduction in liver function as measured by (/sup 131/I)-labeled rose bengal clearance. Prior to death, liver sepsis and endotoxemia were detected in most irradiated, partially hepatectomized animals. Pretreatment of the animals with endotoxin and/or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract resulted in increased survival time, but no irradiated, partially hepatectomized animal survived beyond 63 days. This suggests that sepsis and endotoxemia resulting from the bacteria in the intestine are the immediate cause of death after 30-Gy liver irradiation and partial hepatectomy. It is concluded that the hepatectomized rat model is an economical and scientifically manageable experimental system to study a form of radiation hepatitis that occurs in compromised human livers.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Washington, Seattle
OSTI Identifier:
5612068
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Radiat. Res.; (United States); Journal Volume: 101:3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ASCITES; RADIOINDUCTION; FIBROSIS; LIVER; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; PARTIAL BODY IRRADIATION; NECROSIS; CESIUM 137; GAMMA RADIATION; HEPATECTOMY; IODINE 131; RATS; ALKALI METAL ISOTOPES; ANIMALS; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; BODY; CESIUM ISOTOPES; DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; DIGESTIVE SYSTEM; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; EXTERNAL IRRADIATION; GLANDS; INTERMEDIATE MASS NUCLEI; IODINE ISOTOPES; IONIZING RADIATIONS; IRRADIATION; ISOTOPES; MAMMALS; MEDICINE; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; ORGANS; PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES; RADIATION EFFECTS; RADIATIONS; RADIOISOTOPES; RODENTS; SURGERY; SYMPTOMS; VERTEBRATES; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; 560152* - Radiation Effects on Animals- Animals

Citation Formats

Geraci, J.P., Jackson, K.L., Mariano, M.S., and Leitch, J.M.. Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat. United States: N. p., 1985. Web. doi:10.2307/3576510.
Geraci, J.P., Jackson, K.L., Mariano, M.S., & Leitch, J.M.. Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat. United States. doi:10.2307/3576510.
Geraci, J.P., Jackson, K.L., Mariano, M.S., and Leitch, J.M.. Fri . "Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat". United States. doi:10.2307/3576510.
@article{osti_5612068,
title = {Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat},
author = {Geraci, J.P. and Jackson, K.L. and Mariano, M.S. and Leitch, J.M.},
abstractNote = {Radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats, which is characterized by marked ascites accompanied by liver necrosis, fibrosis, and vein lesions, is described in this study. These adverse sequelae are produced within 30 days after irradiation if there is surgical removal of two-thirds of the liver immediately after whole-liver irradiation. The LD/sub 50/30/ day and median survival time after liver irradiation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy is 24 Gy and 17 days, respectively. Death is preceded by reduction in liver function as measured by (/sup 131/I)-labeled rose bengal clearance. Prior to death, liver sepsis and endotoxemia were detected in most irradiated, partially hepatectomized animals. Pretreatment of the animals with endotoxin and/or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract resulted in increased survival time, but no irradiated, partially hepatectomized animal survived beyond 63 days. This suggests that sepsis and endotoxemia resulting from the bacteria in the intestine are the immediate cause of death after 30-Gy liver irradiation and partial hepatectomy. It is concluded that the hepatectomized rat model is an economical and scientifically manageable experimental system to study a form of radiation hepatitis that occurs in compromised human livers.},
doi = {10.2307/3576510},
journal = {Radiat. Res.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 101:3,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1985},
month = {Fri Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1985}
}
  • The behavlor of the glycogen content of the llver of rats treated with cysteamine (10 mg/lOO gr of body weight) and of rats totally irradiated with a lethal dose of x rays (8OO r) after the administration of a protectlve dose of cysteamine was studied. lt was demonstrated that cysteamine determines glycogenolysis which is particularly evident two hours after treatment. The glycogen content of the liver is restored to normal after 24 hours. In totally irradiated animals receiving a protective dose of cysteamine, in the first hours after irradiation a marked glycogenolysis takes place, followed by glycogeno- sythesis, well evldeutmore » 24 hours after irradiation, which restores to normal the glycogen content of the liver. (auth)« less
  • Purpose: To study vascular injury after whole thoracic irradiation with single sublethal doses of X-rays in the rat and to develop markers that might predict the severity of injury. Methods and Materials: Rats that received 5- or 10-Gy thorax-only irradiation and age-matched controls were studied at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 1, 2, 5, and 12 months. Several pulmonary vascular parameters were evaluated, including hemodynamics, vessel density, total lung angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Results: By 1 month, the rats in the 10-Gy group had pulmonary vascular dropout, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, increased dry lungmore » weights, and decreases in total lung angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, as well as pulmonary artery distensibility. In contrast, irradiation with 5 Gy resulted in only a modest increase in right ventricular weight and a reduction in lung angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. Conclusion: In a previous investigation using the same model, we observed that recovery from radiation-induced attenuation of pulmonary vascular reactivity occurred. In the present study, we report that deterioration results in several vascular parameters for {<=}1 year after 10 Gy, suggesting sustained remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Our data support clinically relevant injuries that appear in a time- and dose-related manner after exposure to relatively low radiation doses.« less