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Title: Acid deposition and atmospheric chemistry at Allegheny Mountain

Abstract

In August, 1983 members of the Research Staff of Ford Motor Company carried out a field experiment at two rural sites in southwestern Pennsylvania involving various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon. This presentation focuses on the wet (rain) deposition during the experiment, as well as the relative importance of wet and dry deposition processes for nitrate and sulfate at the sites. Other aspects of the experiment have been discussed elsewhere: the chemistry of dew and its role in acid deposition (1), the dry deposition of HNO/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ to surrogate surfaces (2), and the role of elemental carbon in light absorption and of light absorption in degradation of visibility (3).

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Research Staff, Ford Motor Co., P.O. Box 2053, Dearborn, MI 48121
OSTI Identifier:
5432102
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Pet. Chem., Prepr.; (United States); Journal Volume: 31:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ACID RAIN; ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY; NITRATES; DEPOSITION; WASHOUT; PENNSYLVANIA; AIR QUALITY; SULFATES; CARBON; FIELD TESTS; NITRIC ACID; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; RURAL AREAS; SULFUR DIOXIDE; VISIBILITY; ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATIONS; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMISTRY; ELEMENTS; ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY; FEDERAL REGION III; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INORGANIC ACIDS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NONMETALS; NORTH AMERICA; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PRECIPITATION SCAVENGING; RAIN; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR OXIDES; TESTING; USA 500200* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Pierson, W.R., Brachaczek, W.W., Gorse, R.A. Jr., Japar, S.M., Norbeck, J.M., and Keeler, G.J. Acid deposition and atmospheric chemistry at Allegheny Mountain. United States: N. p., 1986. Web.
Pierson, W.R., Brachaczek, W.W., Gorse, R.A. Jr., Japar, S.M., Norbeck, J.M., & Keeler, G.J. Acid deposition and atmospheric chemistry at Allegheny Mountain. United States.
Pierson, W.R., Brachaczek, W.W., Gorse, R.A. Jr., Japar, S.M., Norbeck, J.M., and Keeler, G.J. 1986. "Acid deposition and atmospheric chemistry at Allegheny Mountain". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5432102,
title = {Acid deposition and atmospheric chemistry at Allegheny Mountain},
author = {Pierson, W.R. and Brachaczek, W.W. and Gorse, R.A. Jr. and Japar, S.M. and Norbeck, J.M. and Keeler, G.J.},
abstractNote = {In August, 1983 members of the Research Staff of Ford Motor Company carried out a field experiment at two rural sites in southwestern Pennsylvania involving various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon. This presentation focuses on the wet (rain) deposition during the experiment, as well as the relative importance of wet and dry deposition processes for nitrate and sulfate at the sites. Other aspects of the experiment have been discussed elsewhere: the chemistry of dew and its role in acid deposition (1), the dry deposition of HNO/sub 3/ and SO/sub 2/ to surrogate surfaces (2), and the role of elemental carbon in light absorption and of light absorption in degradation of visibility (3).},
doi = {},
journal = {Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Pet. Chem., Prepr.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 31:2,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 4
}

Conference:
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  • Rain chemistry was measured in August 1983 on Allegheny Mountain and Larel Hill in southwester Pennsylvania. The average composition approximated an H/sub 2/SO/sub 5//HNO/sub 3/ mixture with a volume-weighted average pH of 3.5 and an SO/sub 4//sup 2 -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ mole ratio of 1.8. There was very little undissociated (weak) acidity and very little S(IV). The acidic rains were associated with air masses traversing SO/sub 2/ source regions west of the sites; stagnation and intervening precipitation were important influences. The geographic scale for a halving of rain SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentration downwind of SO/sub 2/ sources was approx.440more » km. Scavenging ratios were inferred for SO/sub 2/, aerosol SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and HNO/sub 3/. On average about half of the rain SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ resulted from scavenging of SO/sub 2/, the rest from scavenging of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. The rain H/sup +/ was attributed about 25% to HNO/sub 3/, 55% to scavenging of SO/sub 2/, and 20% to scavenging of aerosol acid SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. Cumulative deposition totals in rain were compared with deposition in fog and with dry deposition in the same experiment. A crude acid-deposition budget was calculated as follows: 47%, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in rain; 23%, SO/sub 2/ dry deposition without dew; 16%, HNO/sub 3/ in rain; 11%, HNO/sub 3/ dry deposition without dew; 2%, HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in fog and dew; 0.5%, aerosol dry deposition without dew. 86 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.« less
  • An experimental study is described in which atmospheric aerosol measurements at Allegheny Mountain in southwestern Pennsylvania were used to search for interrelationships of SO/sub 4/(-), percentage SO/sub 2/-SO/sub 4/(-) conversion, meteorological properties, rainfall, visibility, light scattering, SO/sub 2/, aerosol mass, H(+), NO/sub 3/, various trace elements, and rainfall H(+) and SO/sub 4/(-). The selected woodland location is in the area of maximum SO/sub 4/(-) concentration in the northestern U.S. The results obtained show that aerosol H(+) and SO/sub 4/(-) were uniquely correlated with each other and with light scattering, that the light scattering was entirely attributable to SO/sub 4/(-), andmore » that SO/sub 2/ is evidently not related to any other parameter. It is concluded that the SO/sub 4/(-) at Allegheny Mountain stemmed from transport, with or without SO/sub 2/ oxidation, from westward nonurban sources of some kind that were sources of very little else in the aerosol.« less
  • Annual element budgets for three acidic oak-birch (Quercus robur L.-Betula pendula L.) woodland soils in the Netherlands indicate high inputs of atmospheric (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (2.35-3.45 kmol NH/sub 4/ ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/). Nitrogen transformations lead to strong acid inputs of 3.0 to 7.5 kmol/sub c/ ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ in these soils, which are neutralized primarily by solubilization of Al in the surface 20-cm mineral layers. We hypothesize that Al was relatively important in neutralizing strong acid inputs, due to the high acid loading and the low content of base cations. At the low pH (pH 3.27-4.26) dissolvedmore » Al in the mineral soil was mainly in aquo-Al/sup 3 +/ form. Highest Al concentrations were reached in summer and coincided with high NO/sub 3//sup -/ concentrations. In winter and spring, the export of Al with drainage water peaked and solute concentrations decreased. All Al mobilized in the surface layers of soil A was retained below the 40-cm depth, probably due to cation exchange, since below this depth base saturation increased. In the deeper horizons of soils B and C, immobilization of Al was less, probably because base saturation was low. All subsoil solutions were under-saturated with respect to gibbsite and near equilibrium with jurbanite. Formation of jurbanite is unlikely, however, because mass balance calculations do not indicate net SO/sub 4/ retention.« less
  • This workshop specifically addressed the need, design and implementation of research, development and monitoring with advanced techniques to identify the contribution of acidic and non-acidic pollutant deposition to damage of forests on mountain peaks; and to monitor air and cloud chemical quality in regional transport winds for possible source-receptor model evaluation. The international aspect of this workshop involved Canadian and European scientists and institutions. The workshop participants recommended the establishment of a research and monitoring network extending from the Smoky Mountains to the Laurentian Mountains where forest and atmospheric scientists can study and test in detail the major hypotheses thatmore » have been developed in attempts to explain the current decline of forests. Recommendations for atmospheric research and monitoring are detailed in this report. They include atmospheric related measurements, deposition related measurements, required meteorological measurements, analytical procedures, and a management structure for coordinating these above activities at the various field sites. A cost estimate for the recommended study on atmospheric deposition and its impact on high elevation forest systems is also included.« less
  • Unusual forest declines have been observed in Europe and at high elevations in the northeastern United States during the last several years. Since natural factors cannot explain all of the decline symptoms, researchers have concluded that air pollution is probably involved. Ozone damage, acid deposition, and excess nitrogen deposition have been postulated as possible contributors to the declines. However, information on the concentrations of these pollutants and their deposition rates in the regions experiencing forest decline is sparse, thus precluding an accurate assessment of their role in the declines. During the late summer of 1986, a study at two sitesmore » in the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina was conducted. Objectives of the study were to measure the atmospheric concentrations of species potentially important to forest decline, to determine the deposition rates of these species, and to determine the sources of the species. This book describes the study and reports on some of the results. Estimates of the dry deposition rates of nitrogenous species determined with published dry deposition velocities are presented. The estimated dry deposition rates are compared to the wet deposition rates of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and SO{sub 4}{sup {minus} 2}.« less