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Title: Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia

Abstract

To examine the effects of tachycardia on coronary circulation, transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow (MBF, 15-micron diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres) was studied in six healthy adult ponies at rest (heart rate . 60 +/- 7 beats . min-1), during ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1, as well as with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 before and during maximal coronary vasodilatation (iv adenosine infusion; 4 mumole . kg-1 . min-1). Mean aortic pressure and cardiac output were unchanged from control values with ventricular pacing. Whereas ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1 resulted in a progressive uniform increase in transmural MBF and well-maintained endo:epi perfusion ratio, pacing at 250 beats . min-1 did not result in a further increase in MBF compared to pacing at 200 beats . min-1 and the left ventricular (LV) subendocardial:subepicardial (endo:epi) perfusion ratio was significantly less than 1.00 (0.87 +/- 0.05). Blood flow to the LV papillary muscles and subendocardium was significantly less than that recorded at 200 beats . min-1. The LV endo:epi perfusion ratio with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 during adenosine infusion resulted in a decrease in mean aortic pressure (63% of control value)more » and a marked further reduction in blood flow to the LV papillary muscles as well as the LV subendocardium, while MBF increased dramatically in the LV subepicardium compared to values observed during ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 alone. These data demonstrate that coronary vasomotion functions to maintain LV subendocardial blood flow in the pony myocardium at a heart rate of 200 beats . min-1, while at 250 beats . min-1 exhaustion of coronary vasodilator reserve in the deeper layers limits further increase in MBF.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
OSTI Identifier:
5428087
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. Surg. Res.; (United States); Journal Volume: 35:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; CORONARIES; BLOOD CIRCULATION; VASODILATION; HEART; BLOOD FLOW; BLOOD PRESSURE; HORSES; MICROSPHERES; RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS; ANIMALS; ARTERIES; BLOOD VESSELS; BODY; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; DRUGS; LABELLED COMPOUNDS; MAMMALS; ORGANS; VERTEBRATES; 551001* - Physiological Systems- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

Parks, C., Manohar, M., and Lundeen, G. Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia. United States: N. p., 1983. Web. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(83)90134-8.
Parks, C., Manohar, M., & Lundeen, G. Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia. United States. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(83)90134-8.
Parks, C., Manohar, M., and Lundeen, G. Mon . "Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia". United States. doi:10.1016/0022-4804(83)90134-8.
@article{osti_5428087,
title = {Regional myocardial blood flow and coronary vascular reserve in unanesthetized ponies during pacing-induced ventricular tachycardia},
author = {Parks, C. and Manohar, M. and Lundeen, G.},
abstractNote = {To examine the effects of tachycardia on coronary circulation, transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow (MBF, 15-micron diameter radionuclide-labeled microspheres) was studied in six healthy adult ponies at rest (heart rate . 60 +/- 7 beats . min-1), during ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1, as well as with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 before and during maximal coronary vasodilatation (iv adenosine infusion; 4 mumole . kg-1 . min-1). Mean aortic pressure and cardiac output were unchanged from control values with ventricular pacing. Whereas ventricular pacing at 150 and 200 beats . min-1 resulted in a progressive uniform increase in transmural MBF and well-maintained endo:epi perfusion ratio, pacing at 250 beats . min-1 did not result in a further increase in MBF compared to pacing at 200 beats . min-1 and the left ventricular (LV) subendocardial:subepicardial (endo:epi) perfusion ratio was significantly less than 1.00 (0.87 +/- 0.05). Blood flow to the LV papillary muscles and subendocardium was significantly less than that recorded at 200 beats . min-1. The LV endo:epi perfusion ratio with ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 during adenosine infusion resulted in a decrease in mean aortic pressure (63% of control value) and a marked further reduction in blood flow to the LV papillary muscles as well as the LV subendocardium, while MBF increased dramatically in the LV subepicardium compared to values observed during ventricular pacing at 250 beats . min-1 alone. These data demonstrate that coronary vasomotion functions to maintain LV subendocardial blood flow in the pony myocardium at a heart rate of 200 beats . min-1, while at 250 beats . min-1 exhaustion of coronary vasodilator reserve in the deeper layers limits further increase in MBF.},
doi = {10.1016/0022-4804(83)90134-8},
journal = {J. Surg. Res.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 35:2,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 1983},
month = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 1983}
}
  • The temporal relation between myocardial lactate and hypoxanthine metabolism and regional changes in krypton-81m perfusion during pacing-induced ischemia was studied in 17 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). During incremental atrial pacing, lactate production and hypoxanthine release occurred early and simultaneously, accompanied by ST-segment changes, but before angina and only few minutes after a significant (17%) reduction in krypton-81m perfusion in areas with more than 90% luminal diameter reduction. During maximal pacing heart rates, krypton-81m distribution decreased to 68 +/- 7% of control in areas with more than 90% diameter reduction and to 80 +/- 4% in 70 to 90%more » reduction (both p less than 0.05 vs control). Maximal lactate production occurred 15 seconds after pacing (extraction -15 +/- 7% vs 16 +/- 2% during control, p less than 0.05) and peak hypoxanthine release 1 minute after pacing (delta arteriovenous -2.64 +/- 0.8 microM vs 0.08 +/- 0.21 microM during control, p less than 0.05). Krypton-81m perfusion decreased in 20 of the 21 CAD areas. Angina, ST-segment changes, hemodynamic alterations and lactate production occurred in 15, 14, 9 and 15 patients, respectively. In contrast, hypoxanthine release was found in all cases. After pacing, lactate production and all general indexes of ischemia persisted for only 2 to 3 minutes. In contrast, krypton-81m perfusion was still significantly reduced 5 minutes after pacing and was only accompanied by hypoxanthine release (delta arteriovenous -1.41 +/- 0.6 microM, p less than 0.05 vs control).« less
  • We studied regional myocardial perfusion by scintigraphic computer-assisted analysis of initial distribution, washout rates, and residual activity of /sup 133/Xe injected into the left coronary artery of four patients with normal arteriograms and 14 patients with coronary stenosis. At rest, residual activity in poststenotic regions was always greater than in control regions, but initial washout rates were not slower. During angina, following xenon injections, the amount of indicator distributed to the poststenotic regions was markedly reduced; the increase of the initial washout rates was smaller than in control regions relative to rest, and residual activity was higher. Initial washout ratesmore » did not differ as much as from those of normal myocardium because in severe ischemia too little indicator is deposited initially in these regions to produce a change of any magnitude. Indeed, when angina was induced immediately after the xenon injection, poststenotic washout rates became much slower during angina than at rest, a finding that implicates functional factors in impairing poststenotic myocardial perfusion during angina.« less
  • Regional myocardial blood flow before and after intravenous dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was measured during cardiac catheterization in 11 patients using the /sup 133/Xe washout technique. Significant increases in heart rate and decreases in systolic blood pressure were observed with dipyridamole infusion. However, double product and cardiac output did not differ before or after drug infusion. Regional myocardial blood flow increased from 67 to 117 ml/100 mg/min in myocardial segments supplied by nonobstructed coronary arteries. In stenotic coronary arteries, flow increased from 57 to 79 ml/100 mg/min with dipyridamole. We conclude that dipyridamole infusion results in flow differences which discriminate stenoticmore » from nonstenotic coronary arteries.« less
  • This study assesses the relationship between the distribution of thallium-201 and myocardial blood flow during coronary vasodilation induced by intravenous dipyridamole in canine models of partial and complete coronary artery stenosis. 10 dogs were chronically instrumented with catheters in the left atrium and aorta and with a balloon occluder and electromagnetic flow probe on the proximal left circumflex coronary artery. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured during control conditions with radioisotope-labeled microspheres, and the phasic reactive hyperemic response to a 20-s transient occlusion was then recorded. Dipyridamole was then infused intravenously until phasic coronary blood flow increased to match peakmore » hyperemic values. The left circumflex coronary artery was either partially occluded to reduce phasic blood flow to control values (group 1) or it was completely occluded (group 2), and thallium-201 and a second microsphere label were injected. 5 min later, the animals were sacrificed, the left ventricle was sectioned into 1-2-g samples, and thallium-201 activity and regional myocardial blood flow were measured. Curvilinear regression analyses between thallium-201 localization and myocardial blood flow during dipyridamole infusion demonstrated a slightly better fit to a second- as compared with a first-order model, indicating a slight roll-off of thallium activity as myocardial blood flow increases. During the dipyridamole infusion, the increases in phasic blood flow, the distributions of regional myocardial blood flow, and the relationships between thallium-201 localization and regional blood flow were comparable to values previously observed in exercising dogs with similar occlusions. These data provide basic validation that supports the use of intravenous dipyridamole and thallium-201 as an alternative to exercise stress and thallium-201 for evaluating the effects of coronary occlusive lesions on the distribution of regional myocardial blood flow.« less