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Title: Experimental evidence for condensation reactions between sugars and proteins in carbonate skeletons

Abstract

Melanoidins, condensation products formed from protein and polysaccharide precursors, were once thought to be an important geological sink for organic carbon. The active microbial recycling of the precursors, coupled with an inability to demonstrate the formation of covalent linkages between amino acids and sugars in melanoidins, has shaped a powerful argument against this view. Yet, melanoidins may still be an abundant source of macromolecules in fossil biominerals such as shells, in which the proteins and polysaccharides are well protected from microbial degradation. The authors have modeled diagenetic changes in a biomineral by heating at 90C mixtures of protein, polysaccharides, and finely ground calcite crystals in sealed glass vials. Changes to the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA, fraction V) were monitored by means of gel electrophoresis and immunology. In the presence of water, BSA was rapidly hydrolyzed and remained immunologically reactive for less than 9 h. Under anhydrous conditions the protein was immunologically reactive for the whole period of the experiment (1,281 h), unless mono- or disaccharide sugars were also present. In the presence of these reactive sugars, browning, a discrete increase in molecular weight of the protein, and a concomitant loss of antigenicity confirmed that the sugars were attaching covalentlymore » to the protein, forming melanoidins. The authors roughly estimate that, at the global scale, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6} tons of calcified tissue matrix glycoproteins is processed annually through the melanoidin pathway. This amount would be equivalent to 7 per mil of the total flux of organic carbon into marine sediments.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. (Leiden Univ. (Netherlands))
  2. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5371497
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta; (United States); Journal Volume: 56:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; AMINO ACIDS; DEHYDROCYCLIZATION; CARBONATE ROCKS; DIAGENESIS; SACCHARIDES; CALCITE; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBON CYCLE; CARBON SINKS; CHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; ELECTROPHORESIS; FOSSILS; HYDROLYSIS; INVERTEBRATES; MINERAL CYCLING; PROTEINS; SKELETON; ANIMALS; BODY; CARBOHYDRATES; CARBONATE MINERALS; CARBOXYLIC ACIDS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DECOMPOSITION; KINETICS; LYSIS; MINERALS; ORGANIC ACIDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANS; REACTION KINETICS; ROCKS; SEDIMENTARY ROCKS; SINKS; SOLVOLYSIS; 580000* - Geosciences

Citation Formats

Collins, M.J., Westbroek, P., Muyzer, G., and De Leeuw, J.W.. Experimental evidence for condensation reactions between sugars and proteins in carbonate skeletons. United States: N. p., 1992. Web. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(92)90223-6.
Collins, M.J., Westbroek, P., Muyzer, G., & De Leeuw, J.W.. Experimental evidence for condensation reactions between sugars and proteins in carbonate skeletons. United States. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(92)90223-6.
Collins, M.J., Westbroek, P., Muyzer, G., and De Leeuw, J.W.. Wed . "Experimental evidence for condensation reactions between sugars and proteins in carbonate skeletons". United States. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(92)90223-6.
@article{osti_5371497,
title = {Experimental evidence for condensation reactions between sugars and proteins in carbonate skeletons},
author = {Collins, M.J. and Westbroek, P. and Muyzer, G. and De Leeuw, J.W.},
abstractNote = {Melanoidins, condensation products formed from protein and polysaccharide precursors, were once thought to be an important geological sink for organic carbon. The active microbial recycling of the precursors, coupled with an inability to demonstrate the formation of covalent linkages between amino acids and sugars in melanoidins, has shaped a powerful argument against this view. Yet, melanoidins may still be an abundant source of macromolecules in fossil biominerals such as shells, in which the proteins and polysaccharides are well protected from microbial degradation. The authors have modeled diagenetic changes in a biomineral by heating at 90C mixtures of protein, polysaccharides, and finely ground calcite crystals in sealed glass vials. Changes to the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA, fraction V) were monitored by means of gel electrophoresis and immunology. In the presence of water, BSA was rapidly hydrolyzed and remained immunologically reactive for less than 9 h. Under anhydrous conditions the protein was immunologically reactive for the whole period of the experiment (1,281 h), unless mono- or disaccharide sugars were also present. In the presence of these reactive sugars, browning, a discrete increase in molecular weight of the protein, and a concomitant loss of antigenicity confirmed that the sugars were attaching covalently to the protein, forming melanoidins. The authors roughly estimate that, at the global scale, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6} tons of calcified tissue matrix glycoproteins is processed annually through the melanoidin pathway. This amount would be equivalent to 7 per mil of the total flux of organic carbon into marine sediments.},
doi = {10.1016/0016-7037(92)90223-6},
journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 56:4,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 01 00:00:00 EST 1992},
month = {Wed Apr 01 00:00:00 EST 1992}
}