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Title: Evolution of Permian evaporite basin in Texas panhandle

Abstract

Permian (Leonardian to Ochoan) evaporites in the Texas Panhandle were deposited in a range of marine shelf to supratidal environments along an arid coastline. Carbonates in these strata generally were deposited in inner shelf systems and include subtidal to supratidal facies. Landward of shelf environments, evaporites were deposited in brine pans and salt flats. Brine-pan facies are laminated anhydrite and banded salt that formed in shallow, hypersaline water such as restricted lagoons or supratidal salines. Salt-flat facies are mainly chaotic mixtures of mudstone and halite possibly formed by salt deposition on and within mud flats that bordered brine pans, or in brine-soaked mud-flat depressions. Periodically, mud flats built across the evaporite systems and were supplied with red terrestrial clastics, mainly mud and silt. These facies occur together in at least three different types of lithogenetic units. Strata in the Clear Fork Group (Leonardian) are considered deposits of a coastal evaporite basin that was progressively filled by terrestrial clastics. These rocks exhibit regressive cycles of brine-pan, salt-flat, and mud-flat facies. In contrast, San Andres strata (Guadalupian) were deposited in a broad marine embayment with persistent brine-pan conditions, and contain cycles of inner shelf and brine-pan facies. Post-San Andres strata (late Guadalupianmore » and Ochoan) were deposited in the inner reaches of a broad interior salt basin and are composed mainly of mud-flat, salt-flat, and halite-rich brine-pan facies. 20 figs., 2 tabs.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5338850
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5338850
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AAPG Bulletin (American Association of Petroleum Geologists); (USA); Journal Volume: 71:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; SEDIMENTARY BASINS; STRATIGRAPHY; TEXAS; CARBONATE ROCKS; DEPOSITION; EVAPORITES; GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS; PERMIAN PERIOD; SALT DEPOSITS; SEDIMENTATION; SILTSTONES; FEDERAL REGION VI; GEOLOGIC AGES; GEOLOGIC DEPOSITS; GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES; GEOLOGY; NORTH AMERICA; PALEOZOIC ERA; ROCKS; SEDIMENTARY ROCKS; USA 020200* -- Petroleum-- Reserves, Geology, & Exploration

Citation Formats

Presley, M.W. Evolution of Permian evaporite basin in Texas panhandle. United States: N. p., 1987. Web.
Presley, M.W. Evolution of Permian evaporite basin in Texas panhandle. United States.
Presley, M.W. Sun . "Evolution of Permian evaporite basin in Texas panhandle". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5338850,
title = {Evolution of Permian evaporite basin in Texas panhandle},
author = {Presley, M.W.},
abstractNote = {Permian (Leonardian to Ochoan) evaporites in the Texas Panhandle were deposited in a range of marine shelf to supratidal environments along an arid coastline. Carbonates in these strata generally were deposited in inner shelf systems and include subtidal to supratidal facies. Landward of shelf environments, evaporites were deposited in brine pans and salt flats. Brine-pan facies are laminated anhydrite and banded salt that formed in shallow, hypersaline water such as restricted lagoons or supratidal salines. Salt-flat facies are mainly chaotic mixtures of mudstone and halite possibly formed by salt deposition on and within mud flats that bordered brine pans, or in brine-soaked mud-flat depressions. Periodically, mud flats built across the evaporite systems and were supplied with red terrestrial clastics, mainly mud and silt. These facies occur together in at least three different types of lithogenetic units. Strata in the Clear Fork Group (Leonardian) are considered deposits of a coastal evaporite basin that was progressively filled by terrestrial clastics. These rocks exhibit regressive cycles of brine-pan, salt-flat, and mud-flat facies. In contrast, San Andres strata (Guadalupian) were deposited in a broad marine embayment with persistent brine-pan conditions, and contain cycles of inner shelf and brine-pan facies. Post-San Andres strata (late Guadalupian and Ochoan) were deposited in the inner reaches of a broad interior salt basin and are composed mainly of mud-flat, salt-flat, and halite-rich brine-pan facies. 20 figs., 2 tabs.},
doi = {},
journal = {AAPG Bulletin (American Association of Petroleum Geologists); (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 71:2,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 1987},
month = {Sun Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 1987}
}
  • In this Department of Energy-funded project, the author describes lithology of core samples from two Department of Energy wells in Randall and Swisher Counties and determines clay mineralogy and X-ray diffraction response using 73 samples from the Randall County well and 40 samples from the Swisher County well. On the basis of his analyses, the author identifies the clay assemblage in the Palo Duro Basin evaporites as consisting of saponite, a magnesium-rich smectite; mixed-layer chlorite/smectite; chlorite/vermiculite; chlorite/swelling chlorite; vermiculite/swelling chlorite; chlorite, and illite. Chemical analyses reveal that the chemical composition of the mixed-layer clays is intermediate between normal aluminum-rich detritalmore » clays and normal vermiculite and chlorite, magnesium clays of hydrothermal or metamorphic origin. The author postulates that rates and amounts of clay alteration are probably controlled by magnesium ion activity, brine salinity, brine pH, and sediment and clay residence time in the marine evaporite environment.« less
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  • The Palo Duro basin of the Texas Panhandle is filled primarily with Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Triassic strata that record the depositional history of a shallow cratonic basin. Regional deformation during Early Pennsylvanian time across a belt encompassing the southern Oklahoma and Delaware aulacogens resulted in the formation of the basin. Rapid basin subsidence and marine transgression dominated Pennsylvanian and marine transgression dominated Pennsylvanian depositional history but was followed by marine regression and rapid filling of deeper parts of the basin during Early Permian (Wolfcampain) time. Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata consist of four major facies assemblages or depositional systems. Anmore » extensive fan-delta system is composed of arkosic sandstones eroded from Precambrian highlands flanking the basin and deposited by braided streams along the margins of the basin. In the southeastern part of the Palo Duro basin, westward prograding, high-constructive deltas dispersed sediment across a shelf environment and into basin and slope environments. A thick, massive sequence of limestone accumulated seaward of the deltas in a carbonate-shelf and shelf-margin system that encircled most of the basin. Rapid Pennsylvanian subsidence combined with invasion and deposition of terrigenous clastics across carbonate-bank environments caused parts of the northwestern shelf margin to retreat westward toward shallow, clear water. During Early Permian time subsidence rates slowed and sedimentologic controls dominated basin evolution. Thick slope wedges, which were formed by deltas that prograded to shelf edges and debouched sediment into the slope environment, created shallow foundations for subsequent carbonate-bank development and progradation. Porous shelf-margin dolomites, delta-front sandstones, and fan-delta arkoses are considered potential reservoirs for oil and gas. 19 figures, 1 table.« less
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