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Title: Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

Abstract

This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5214404
Report Number(s):
UCRL-53228
ON: DE82012528; TRN: 82-013937
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; FISSION PRODUCTS; RADIOECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; SPACE PROPULSION REACTORS; DEPOSITION; DOSE RATES; GAMMA RADIATION; NEVADA TEST SITE; RADIOISOTOPES; RAMJET ENGINES; ROCKET ENGINES; TEST REACTORS; UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; ENGINES; EXPLOSIONS; HEAT ENGINES; INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; IONIZING RADIATIONS; ISOTOPES; MATERIALS; MOBILE REACTORS; NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS; POWER REACTORS; PROPULSION REACTORS; RADIATIONS; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS; REACTORS; RESEARCH AND TEST REACTORS; SPACE POWER REACTORS; US DOE; US ORGANIZATIONS; WASTES; NESDPS Office of Nuclear Energy Space and Defense Power Systems; 510301* - Environment, Terrestrial- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport- Soil- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Hicks, H.G.. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines. United States: N. p., 1981. Web. doi:10.2172/5214404.
Hicks, H.G.. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines. United States. doi:10.2172/5214404.
Hicks, H.G.. Sun . "Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines". United States. doi:10.2172/5214404. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5214404.
@article{osti_5214404,
title = {Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines},
author = {Hicks, H.G.},
abstractNote = {This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.},
doi = {10.2172/5214404},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1981},
month = {Sun Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1981}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Recent field studies have led to the discovery of trace quantities of plutonium originating from the BENHAM underground nuclear test in two groundwater observation wells on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. These observation wells are located 1.3 km from the BENHAM underground nuclear test and approximately 300 m from the TYBO underground nuclear test. In addition to plutonium, several other conservative (e.g. tritium) and reactive (e.g. cesium) radionuclides were found in both observation wells. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a well sampling a welded tuff aquifer more than 500m above the BENHAM emplacement depth. These measurementsmore » have prompted additional investigations to ascertain the mechanisms, processes, and conditions affecting subsurface radionuclide transport in Pahute Mesa groundwater. This report describes an integrated modeling approach used to simulate groundwater flow, radionuclide source release, and radionuclide transport near the BENHAM and TYBO underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. The components of the model include a flow model at a scale large enough to encompass many wells for calibration, a source-term model capable of predicting radionuclide releases to aquifers following complex processes associated with nonisothermal flow and glass dissolution, and site-scale transport models that consider migration of solutes and colloids in fractured volcanic rock. Although multiple modeling components contribute to the methodology presented in this report, they are coupled and yield results consistent with laboratory and field observations. Additionally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to provide insight into the relative importance of uncertainty ranges in the transport parameters.« less
  • The purpose of this report is to provide an approach for the development of a simplified unclassified hydrologic source term (HST) for the ten underground nuclear tests conducted in the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is being prepared in an analytic form for incorporation into a GOLDSIM (Golder Associates, 2000) model of radionuclide release and migration in the Frenchman Flat CAU. This model will be used to explore, in an approximate and probabilistic fashion, sensitivities of the 1,000-year radionuclide contaminant boundary (FFACO, 1996; 2000) to hydrologic and other related parameters. The totalmore » inventory (or quantity) of radionuclides associated with each individual test, regardless of its form and distribution, is referred to as the radiologic source term (RST) of that test. The subsequent release of these radionuclides over time into groundwater is referred to as the hydrologic source term (HST) of that test (Tompson, et al., 2002). The basic elements of the simplified hydrologic source term model include: (1) Estimation of the volumes of geologic material physically affected by the tests. (2) Identification, quantification, and distribution of the radionuclides of importance. (3) Development of simplified release and retardation models for these radionuclides in groundwater. The simplifications used in the current HST model are based upon more fundamental analyses that are too complicated for use in a GOLDSIM sensitivity study. These analyses are based upon complex, three-dimensional flow and reactive transport simulations summarized in the original CAMBRIC hydrologic source term model (Tompson et al., 1999), unclassified improvements of this model discussed in Pawloski et al. (2000), as well as more recent studies that are part of an ongoing model of the HST at the CHESHIRE test in Pahute Mesa (Pawloski et al., 2001).« less