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Title: Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation

Abstract

The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling, and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 80% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium, and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of the radioactive cloud over the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the uppper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. The inhalation doses due to direct cloud exposure were estimated to exceed 10 mGy near the Chernobyl area, to range between 0.1 and 0.001 mGy within most of Europe, and to be generally less than 0.00001 mGy within the US. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents, while the /sup 137/Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released bymore » the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5027173
Report Number(s):
UCRL-98235; CONF-880367-3
ON: DE88008886
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: SCOPE-ENUWAR workshop on the environmental consequences of nuclear war, Moscow, USSR, 20 Mar 1988
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; CHERNOBYLSK-4 REACTOR; REACTOR ACCIDENTS; FALLOUT; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; HUMAN POPULATIONS; DOSE EQUIVALENTS; RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION; CESIUM 137; INHALATION; LONG-RANGE TRANSPORT; METEOROLOGY; SOURCE TERMS; STRONTIUM 90; WESTERN EUROPE; ACCIDENTS; ALKALI METAL ISOTOPES; ALKALINE EARTH ISOTOPES; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CESIUM ISOTOPES; DISTRIBUTION; ENRICHED URANIUM REACTORS; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; EUROPE; EVEN-EVEN NUCLEI; GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS; INTAKE; INTERMEDIATE MASS NUCLEI; ISOTOPES; LWGR TYPE REACTORS; MASS TRANSFER; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; POPULATIONS; POWER REACTORS; RADIOISOTOPES; REACTORS; STRONTIUM ISOTOPES; THERMAL REACTORS; WATER COOLED REACTORS; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; 210300* - Power Reactors, Nonbreeding, Graphite Moderated; 220500 - Nuclear Reactor Technology- Environmental Aspects

Citation Formats

Gudiksen, P H, Harvey, T F, and Lange, R. Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation. United States: N. p., 1988. Web.
Gudiksen, P H, Harvey, T F, & Lange, R. Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation. United States.
Gudiksen, P H, Harvey, T F, and Lange, R. Mon . "Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5027173.
@article{osti_5027173,
title = {Chernobyl source term, atmospheric dispersion, and dose estimation},
author = {Gudiksen, P H and Harvey, T F and Lange, R},
abstractNote = {The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling, and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 80% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium, and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of the radioactive cloud over the Northern Hemisphere revealed that the cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the uppper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. The inhalation doses due to direct cloud exposure were estimated to exceed 10 mGy near the Chernobyl area, to range between 0.1 and 0.001 mGy within most of Europe, and to be generally less than 0.00001 mGy within the US. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents, while the /sup 137/Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1988},
month = {2}
}

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