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Title: Chernobyl source term estimation

Abstract

The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtainedmore » on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)
Sponsoring Org.:
DOE/NE
OSTI Identifier:
6302389
Report Number(s):
UCRL-JC-103413; CONF-901034-1
ON: DE91007130; TRN: 91-004617
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ASME/IEEE joint power generation conference, Boston, MA (USA), 21-25 Oct 1990
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CHERNOBYLSK-4 REACTOR; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; SOURCE TERMS; CESIUM 134; CESIUM 137; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; FISSION PRODUCT RELEASE; FISSION PRODUCTS; IODINE 131; NORTHERN HEMISPHERE; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; RADIATION MONITORING; RADIATION TRANSPORT; RADIOISOTOPES; REACTOR SAFETY; THREE MILE ISLAND-2 REACTOR; WINDSCALE PRODUCTION REACTORS; AIR COOLED REACTORS; ALKALI METAL ISOTOPES; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CESIUM ISOTOPES; DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; EARTH PLANET; ENRICHED URANIUM REACTORS; EXPLOSIONS; GAS COOLED REACTORS; GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS; HOURS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; INTERMEDIATE MASS NUCLEI; INTERNAL CONVERSION RADIOISOTOPES; IODINE ISOTOPES; ISOMERIC TRANSITION ISOTOPES; ISOTOPES; LWGR TYPE REACTORS; MATERIALS; MONITORING; NATURAL URANIUM REACTORS; NUCLEI; ODD-EVEN NUCLEI; ODD-ODD NUCLEI; PLANETS; PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION REACTORS; POWER REACTORS; PRODUCTION REACTORS; PWR TYPE REACTORS; RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS; REACTORS; SAFETY; THERMAL REACTORS; WATER COOLED REACTORS; WATER MODERATED REACTORS; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; 220502* - Nuclear Reactor Technology- Environmental Aspects- Radioactive Effluents; 210300 - Power Reactors, Nonbreeding, Graphite Moderated; 540130 - Environment, Atmospheric- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport- (1990-)

Citation Formats

Gudiksen, P H, Harvey, T F, and Lange, R. Chernobyl source term estimation. United States: N. p., 1990. Web.
Gudiksen, P H, Harvey, T F, & Lange, R. Chernobyl source term estimation. United States.
Gudiksen, P H, Harvey, T F, and Lange, R. 1990. "Chernobyl source term estimation". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6302389.
@article{osti_6302389,
title = {Chernobyl source term estimation},
author = {Gudiksen, P H and Harvey, T F and Lange, R},
abstractNote = {The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6302389}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1990},
month = {9}
}

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