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Title: Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report

Abstract

A total of 289,868 locus tests, based on 28 different protein phenotypes and using one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of proximally exposed parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure of 31 to 39 rem in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of distally exposed parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure.

Authors:
 [1]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
  1. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5006255
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.; (United States); Journal Volume: 77:7
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; A-BOMB SURVIVORS; GENETIC RADIATION EFFECTS; CHILDREN; PROTEINS; GENETIC VARIABILITY; DELAYED RADIATION EFFECTS; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS; ELECTROPHORESIS; EPIDEMIOLOGY; GENES; HIROSHIMA; MOLECULAR STRUCTURE; MUTATIONS; NAGASAKI; PHENOTYPE; RADIATION DOSES; AGE GROUPS; ANIMALS; ASIA; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; BIOLOGICAL VARIABILITY; DOSES; GENETIC EFFECTS; JAPAN; MAMMALS; MAN; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PRIMATES; RADIATION EFFECTS; VERTEBRATES; 560151* - Radiation Effects on Animals- Man; 550400 - Genetics; 550200 - Biochemistry

Citation Formats

Neel, J.V., Satoh, C., Hamilton, H.B., Otake, M., Goriki, K., Kageoka, T., Fujita, M., Neriishi, S., and Asakawa J. Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report. United States: N. p., 1980. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.7.4221.
Neel, J.V., Satoh, C., Hamilton, H.B., Otake, M., Goriki, K., Kageoka, T., Fujita, M., Neriishi, S., & Asakawa J. Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.7.4221.
Neel, J.V., Satoh, C., Hamilton, H.B., Otake, M., Goriki, K., Kageoka, T., Fujita, M., Neriishi, S., and Asakawa J. 1980. "Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.7.4221.
@article{osti_5006255,
title = {Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report},
author = {Neel, J.V. and Satoh, C. and Hamilton, H.B. and Otake, M. and Goriki, K. and Kageoka, T. and Fujita, M. and Neriishi, S. and Asakawa J.},
abstractNote = {A total of 289,868 locus tests, based on 28 different protein phenotypes and using one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of proximally exposed parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure of 31 to 39 rem in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of distally exposed parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.77.7.4221},
journal = {Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 77:7,
place = {United States},
year = 1980,
month = 7
}
  • A sample of (1) children whose parents had been proximally exposed (i.e., less than 2000 m from the hypocenter) at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and (2) a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus productsmore » for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. When these two series are compared, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed persons is thus 0.60 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10(-5), and that in the comparison children is 0.64 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10(-5). The average conjoint gonad doses for the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. If a relative biological effectiveness of 20 is assigned to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose for the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (Organ absorbed doses are expressed in gray (1 Gy = 100 rad); where dose is a mixture of gamma and neutron radiation, it is necessary because of the differing relative biological effectiveness of gamma and neutron radiation to express the combined gamma-neutron gonad exposures in sieverts (1 Sv = 100 rem)).« less
  • A sample of (1) children whose parents had been proximally exposed (i.e., less than 2000 m from the hypocenter) at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and (2) a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus productsmore » for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. When these two series are compared, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed persons is thus 0.60 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10(-5), and that in the comparison children is 0.64 x 10(-5)/locus/generation, with 95% intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10(-5). The average conjoint gonad doses for the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. If a relative biological effectiveness of 20 is assigned to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose for the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (Organ absorbed doses are expressed in gray (1 Gy = 100 rad); where dose is a mixture of gamma and neutron radiation, it is necessary because of the differing relative biological effectiveness of gamma and neutron radiation to express the combined gamma-neutron gonad exposures in sieverts (1 Sv = 100 rem)).« less
  • This article summarizes recent epidemiologic studies of cancer risk among the children of atomic bomb survivors conducted at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. These children include two groups: (1) the in utero-exposed children (ie, those born to mothers who had been pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (2) the F1 population, which was conceived after the atomic-bombings and born to parents of whom one or both were atomic bomb survivors. Although from 1950 to 1984 only 18 cancer cases were identified among the in utero sample, cancer risk did appear to significantly increase asmore » maternal uterine dose increased. However, since the observed cases are too few in number to allow a site-specific review, the increased cancer risk cannot be definitively attributed to atomic bomb radiation, as yet. For those members of the F1 population who were less than 20 years old between 1946 and 1982, cancer risk did not appear to increase significantly as parental gonadal dose increased. Follow-up of this population will continue to determine if the patterns of adult-onset cancer are altered.« less
  • Cancer mortality for the period from October 1950 through May 1992 was analyzed in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Risk estimates for this group were also compared to those for survivors who were less than 6 years old at the time of exposure. The cohorts studied include 807 in utero survivors and 5,545 persons exposed during childhood with all members of both groups having estimated doses of at least 0.01 Sv. The comparison group includes 10,453 persons with little (<0.01 Sv) or no exposure. Analyses were limited mainly to cancer deaths occurring between the ages of 17 and 46.more » Only 10 cancer deaths were observed among persons exposed in utero. However, there is a significant dose response with an estimate of excess relative risk per sievert (ERR/Sv) of 2.1 (90% confidence interval of 0.2 to 6.0). This estimate does not differ significantly from that for survivors exposed during the first 5 years of life. The cancer deaths among those exposed during the first 5 years of life. 23 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.« less