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Title: Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study

Abstract

The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAXmore » level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA (United States)
  2. WCFWRU, Seattle, WA (United States). School of Fisheries
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
49579
Report Number(s):
CONF-9410273-
TRN: 95:011599
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 15. annual meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), Denver, CO (United States), 30 Oct - 3 Nov 1994; Other Information: PBD: 1994; Related Information: Is Part Of Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15th annual meeting: Abstract book. Ecological risk: Science, policy, law, and perception; PB: 286 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; WASHINGTON; LAND POLLUTION; METALS; TOXICITY; CREOSOTE; PETROLEUM PRODUCTS; DAPHNIA; SENSITIVITY; ANNELIDS; FATHEAD MINNOW; FROGS; SEEDLINGS; REMEDIAL ACTION

Citation Formats

Blakley, N., Norton, D., Stinson, M., and Boyer, R.. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Blakley, N., Norton, D., Stinson, M., & Boyer, R.. Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study. United States.
Blakley, N., Norton, D., Stinson, M., and Boyer, R.. Sat . "Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_49579,
title = {Evaluation of soil bioassays for use at Washington state hazardous waste sites: A pilot study},
author = {Blakley, N. and Norton, D. and Stinson, M. and Boyer, R.},
abstractNote = {The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) is developing guidelines to assess soil toxicity at hazardous waste sites being investigated under the Washington Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. To evaluate soil toxicity, Ecology selected five bioassay protocols -- Daphnia, Earthworm, Seedling, Fathead Minnow, and Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) -- for use as screening level assessment tools at six State hazardous waste sites. Sites contained a variety of contaminants including metals, creosote, pesticides, and petroleum products (leaking underground storage tanks). Three locations, representing high, medium, and low levels of contamination, were samples at each site. In general, the high contaminant samples resulted in the highest toxic response in all bioassays. The order of site toxicity, as assessed by overall toxic response, is creosote, petroleum products, metals, and pesticides. Results indicate that human health standards, especially for metals, may not adequately protect some of the species tested. The FETAX bioassay had the greatest overall number of toxic responses and lowest variance. The seedling and Daphnia bioassays had lower and similar overall toxic response results, followed by the earthworm and fathead minnow. Variability was markedly highest for the seedling. The Daphnia and fathead minnow variability were similar to the FETAX level, while the earthworm variability was slightly higher.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1994},
month = {Sat Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1994}
}

Conference:
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  • At three Army posts, ecological risk assessments were performed as part of environmental investigations at various hazardous waste locations. At all three posts, surface water, sediment, and soil media were ecological receptor pathways, and no quantitative ecological data were to be collected. Without established screening criteria or models for soil and sediment, a method of screening chemical constituents as potential risk chemicals had to be established. The methods used involved a series of screens, assumptions, and models. Chemicals of potential ecological concern were compared to background and frequency of detection in samples as an initial screen. Ingestion dosages for themore » unscreened chemicals were calculated using a simplistic model of exposure concentration x daily ingestion rate x appropriate unit conversion factors; where daily ingestion of soil/sediment is a percentage of the ecological receptor body weight, amount of the contaminated media consumed is based on home range and area of contamination, and an assumed percentage of the chemical ingested is absorbed by the GI tract. The dosage also depended upon the areal extent and level of contamination, and whether the exposure was surficial (e.g., nonburrowing) or subsurface (e.g., burrowing). Dosages were compared to literature values to determine if an effect level may be exceeded by biota at the site. Whenever possible, LOELs and chronic values were used.« less
  • To determine whether ground-water contamination has occurred or remediation efforts have been effective, it is necessary to collect ground-water samples in such a way that the samples are representative of aquifer hydrogeochemical conditions. Unfortunately, there are many factors in the sampling and analysis process that can introduce variability into determinations of results. Examples include well drilling method, well design, the materials used in well construction, well development and purging, sampling device, sample handling and preservation, and analytical technique. Formation of stagnant water within conventional monitoring wells indicates that these wells should be purged prior to sampling, a procedure that maymore » introduce significant bias into the determination of concentrations of sensitive constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are common contaminants at hazardous waste sites. In addition, the purging process may produce waste-water disposal problems and undesirable exposure of sampling personnel to potentially hazardous materials. The use of in situ ground-water sampling devices, which minimize or eliminate the need for well purging, may help alleviate some of the difficulties associated with sampling ground water at hazardous waste sites. These devices generally are not used in conventional monitoring wells but are stand-alone systems installed directly into the subsurface. Because of the nature of their design and installation, these devices collect samples almost directly from the formation.« less
  • many potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been identified in the air downwind of waste sites. An important potential impact of these hazardous emissions is the long-term inhalation exposures experienced by downwind residents. Interest is growing in examining the emission rates and downwind concentrations of VOCs released from contaminated sites. Modeling approaches provide a less-costly alternative to evaluating the potential impacts of VOC emissions from contaminated sites. However, the emissions models currently existing can only be utilized for screening-level purposes due to the many assumptions made; for example, a uniform and infinite supply of contaminants, negligible partitioning between phases,more » and a negligible leachate transport route. The purpose of this publication is to introduce a more complete emission model, and to use the new model to examine the behavior of a few selected compounds. The new model removes the major assumptions inherent in the screening-level models, incorporates most of the important mechanisms occurring in contaminated sites, and provides a readily-accessible solution due to its analytical nature.« less
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